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  1. Sep 2020
    1. Access networks and access devices — the edge of the Internet — evolve rapidly, with many and varied devices connecting to new services, potentially using specialised networks, driven in large part by the IoT. 5G cellular network standardisation and deployment are partially driven by anticipated uses that depend on bespoke access networks with much greater processing capabilities in base stations close to mobile terminals.

      Again, it would be interesting to understand what could be the interplay between this trend and data localization.

    2. Underpinning the trend of content and cloud providers investing in their own infrastructure is the dominance of a small set of providers in the application layer, predominantly Google, Facebook, Amazon, and Microsoft. Their services rely on a global network of interconnected data centres and servers to process and deliver content closer to the users

      Would data localization policies significantly impact these giants' operations?

    3. large content and cloud providers are investing in their own international connectivity infrastructure to serve their networks of data centres and servers across the globe.

      What is the interplay between this localization trend and governmental data localization policies?

    4. As large investments are required in order to provide the full range of capabilities and resources, the IaaS and PaaS markets appear to be consolidating around the major players.

      If users in developing countries are hiring big companies to be their cloud computing providers, what's the impact of potential data localisation? Theoretically, these companies would have the resources to build processing facilities in developing countries (at least the largest ones). But: a) would that really translate into gains for developing countries (ex. create jobs, access to technology, the development of a local tech scene? b) Would smaller countries be able to enforce the same demand?; c) could data localisation be enforced on a regional basis instead to benefit from some gains of scale? ||MariliaM||

    5. With the ability to access and manage servers remotely, from anywhere on the Internet, new businesses have emerged that specialise in renting out space and processing on their servers. Today, cloud computing services dominate this arena. They use large data-centres with expertise and economies of scale, offering their specialised services globally. Customers tend to access these resources as needed instead of buying and managing servers themselves
      • Will data localisation trends affect the infrastructure of the service provision (ex. will localization of data centers have an impact on CDN deployment)?
      • How will data localisation trends affect the market of cloud computing services? (there are some empirical cases to study eg. India)
      • What is the prevailing regulatory trend in trade negotiations (global and regional, via RTAs, and national with a few case studies) when it comes to data localization? What are the political motivations for and against data localization?
      • What are the potential gains and losses that developing countries may face if they implement data localisation provisions? What are the potential unintended consequences (ex. difficulty in accessing the processing and analytical capability necessary for the national development of AI tools? ||MariliaM||
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