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  1. Aug 2022
    1. Zero days are expensive to buy and develop. They have historically been deployed by state-backed groups, yet in 2021 one-third of all hacking groups exploiting zero days were financially motivated criminals.48

      Important point: what used to be a privilege of big states in terms of offensive cyber capabilities (esp. weapons) is not any more - there are powerful criminal groups, dark researchers, international vulnerability brokers, and even legit businesses like NSO that offer tools and 'as a service' sophisticated attacks and tools. Though, most sophisticated and stealth attacks require more than that: lots of skills and (conventional) intelligence - resources that not many states have.

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