10,739 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. “tea” and “sea” would be farther apart because they have dissimilar meanings and are not used together often, even though they have similar spelling.

      They are not used often together.

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    1. Types of vector embeddings

      What type of embedding we have in our vector database: word, sentence or document. Could we have embedding of all three?

      ||JovanNj|| ||anjadjATdiplomacy.edu||

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  2. Feb 2024
    1. By that text, titled “Promotion of inclusive and effective international tax cooperation at the United Nations” (document A/C.2/78/L.18/Rev.1), the Assembly would stress that efforts in international tax cooperation should be universal in approach and scope and fully consider the different needs and capacities of all States, in particular developing countries and countries in special situations.  The Committee approved it by a recorded vote of 125 in favour to 48 against, with 9 abstentions (Armenia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Iceland, Mexico, Norway, Peru, Türkiye, United Arab Emirates).

      Vote on drafting UN Taxation Treaty.

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    1. Following the UN Secretary-General’s report earlier this year highlighting the exclusionary nature of the OECD’s tax work, however, we now see a most welcome formal challenge.

      Interesting document

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    1. by despite the tendency for multi-stakeholder processes to water things down”

      ||sorina|| it is interesting aspect that multi-stakeholder processes are used to water things down.

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    1. one common definition of weight is the importance given to individual input features when training a machine learning model

      What is exactly weight? There are two explanatons in this paragraph. ||JovanNj||||anjadjATdiplomacy.edu||

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    1. Factors such as the intense US-China tech rivalry and the escalating chip embargo on Chinese AI firms further diminish the government’s incentive to impose strict regulation.

      ||MariliaM|| This article discusses AI governance in China. It has linkages between digital and security as you are focusing on.

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    1. distributing power, catalyzing innovation, and ensuring transparency

      Three reasons for open source AI.

    2. n the EU, open foundation models trained with fewer than 1025floating point operations (a measure of the amount of compute expended) appear to be exempted under the recently negotiated AI Act.

      EU AI Act on open source foundational models.

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    1. For each key finding below, more granular response categories are presented in the main text, along with demographic breakdowns of interest.

      Why America was afraid of AI in Spring 2023.

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    1. LangChain and LlamaIndex.

      Are we using any of these methods?

    2. a time-weighted approach would help us retrieve the most recent document.

      Can we use this for updates, courses, blog posts?

    3. we use list comprehension to get text embeddings for all text chunks.

      ||anjadjATdiplomacy.edu|| does it mean that we get at the end one vectoral value or whole text (not only text chunk).?

    4. it is crucial to split the document into smaller chunks so that it's more effective to identify and retrieve the most relevant information in the retrieval process later.

      Can we split it into smaller chanks? Ideally it should be on the level of sentence or paragraph in the text. Can we use some of HTML markers/code to identify beinning/end of para or sentence.

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    1. The Act takes a “risk approach”, i.e. it conditions intervention on the basis of the expected “risk” of the application – but not a market power approach.

      EU AI Act ignores market power risks.

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    1. o promoting digital skills along the entire education chain

      Focus on education.

    2. to counteract the possible leakage of critical technologies and knowledge.

      This is 'Chinese norm'

    3. with our values and interests.

      A strong focus on 'our' in values and interests. It remains to be seen if 'others' relate to those who have different values and itnerests (but not confrontational) or only to those who directly oppose 'our' values and interests. It will be key distinction in this 'value-based' approach. Does it include cooperation with China?

    4. improving geo-redundancy.

      Interesting new concept. What would it mean in practice?

    5. the expansion and protection of submarine data cables, terrestrial optical fibres and new satellite constellations

      Critical infrastructure.

    6. democratic partners

      is there any indication of criteria (e.g. elections, free press)? Is there any list of those partners?

    7. also

      It opens the space for other format such as multilateral (unlike previously mentioned digital networking).

    8. innovative, secure, trustworthy, human-centric and sustainable artificial intelligence (AI).

      to follow this phrase in AI debates. It could emerge as 5-pillars slogan for AI governance.

    9. in particular through our cooperation in ‘Team Europe’.

      Does it mean that cooperation with Africa, and the neighbours will be more pushed via EU-channels, including 'Team Europe'?

    10. we are enhancing bilateral cooperation with partners who share our values and who are important political, economic and regulatory players in the digital sphere.

      Is this AND or OR condition between two elements: - 'share our values' - important players

      For example, does China fit into this criterioon?

    11. We consider the multi-stakeholder approach essential for global digital networking.

      What is 'global digital networking'? Is it cybersecurity as well? What about AI?

    12. We want to avoid duplicate structures, which make a broad-based and inclusive participation of stakeholders in international bodies harder

      Highly relevant link between duplucate structire as a way that prevent inclusive participation.

    13. economic interdependencies in the area of digitalization do not adversely affect our security.

      An interesting interplay between interdependence and security with a possible shift closer to security.

    14. Especially in the Global South, standards can be a way to remove obstacles to development, promote innovations and stimulate economic growth in a sustainable manner.

      It is the far-fetched link. Standards can be useful. But, developing countries have so many other obstacles (access, funding) apart from standards.

    15. We advocate for corresponding binding rules on digital trade at international level. Moreover, we support the efforts of the EU with regard to rules on digital trade, in particular in trade agreements. We are coordinating closely with the other EU Member States and the European Commission in international negotiations. We also take into account the challenges faced by the countries of the Global South.

      Interesting! There is no mention of WTO e-commerce negotiations explicitly which was a pillar of Germany's e-commerce and data policies. Does Germany follow US shift away from data negotiations in WTO? It can be followed by statements during WTO Ministerial conference.

    16. he FAIR principle (findable, accessible, interoperable, reusable) for data.

      to be further analysed

    17. the concept of Data Free Flow with Trust (DFFT)

      to be further analysed

    18. We are promoting broad-based options for participation in order to make digital policy decision-making processes and digital participation as inclusive as possible.

      A possible support of Diplo?

    19. This includes our commitment in the G7, the Group of Twenty (G20), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the Global Partnership on Artificial Intelligence (GPAI), the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization (WTO), international financial institutions such as the World Bank and the UN, including the ITU. We coordinate closely with the other EU Member States and the European Commission.

      Key global partners of Germany.

    20. net neutrality is an overriding principle in the Internet ecosystem.

      Almost forgotten concept.

    21. or a global, open, free and secure Internet

      We should monitor how many countries use this 4-pillar phrase in their strategies, speeches, etc.

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    1. Russia also ranked 38th out 193 countries in the latest AI -readiness index by Oxford Insights, a consultancy; America came first.

      ||sorina|| ||Jovan||

    2. Yandex, Russia’s search giant, has integrated an LLM , Yandex GPT -2, into its virtual-assistant service, known as “Alice”.

      ||JovanNj|| Alice - Russian GPt. Do they have API?

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    1. as well as clarifying the principles and norms under which various organizations should operate.

      Deos it mean that it will instruct ITU, UNESCO about princples and norms?

    2. A ‘distributed-CERN’ reimagined for AI, networked across diverse states and regions, could expand opportunities for greater involvement

      CERN is already distributed.

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    1. Chaos theory is about systems where small changes to the initial conditions result in extremely large changes in the results.

      Problem with predicitons

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    1. Sometimes referred to as data-centre alley, northern Virginia is home to just over three square kilometres of data centres, most of which are within 75 square kilometres in Loudoun County.

      ||sorina|| Here is relevan paragraph for you.

    2. Because AI is based on matrix maths, it involves large blocks of computation being done at once, which means a lot of transistors have to change states very quickly. That draws a lot more power than normal computer tasks, which flip far fewer transistors at once for a typical calculation.

      Why AI takes more energy?

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    1. However, it warned the cables at some points run at a depth of 100 metres, reducing the need for hi-tech submarines. In 2013, three divers were arrested in Egypt for attempting to cut an undersea cable near the port of Alexandria that provides much of the internet capacity between Europe and Egypt.

      This is a problem with cables ||sorina||

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    1. for the first time

      ||AndrijanaG||||sorina|| Was it adopted for the first time?

    2. its own Global AI Governance Initiative in October, calling on major powers to take “a prudent and responsible attitude” on military use of artificial intelligence technologies.

      Do we have t

    3. the Political Declaration on the Responsible Military Use of Artificial Intelligence and Autonomy a year ago.

      ||sorina||||VladaR||||MariliaM|| Do we have anything on this declartion?

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    1. A paper by Rebecca Johnson, a researcher at the University of Sydney, published in 2022, found that Chat GPT -3 gave replies on topics such as gun control and refugee policy that aligned most with the values displayed by Americans in the World Values Survey, a global questionnaire of public opinion.

      To be checked

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    1. Firms in countries that have not signed on to the American export-control regime, like Singapore, can buy chips and send them on to Chinese entities without the knowledge of the American firms or the Department of Commerce.

      Singapore does not join American export restrictions to China.

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    1. Publishers around the world are all too aware of this shift; over half of those recently surveyed by the Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism said that they plan to devote more effort into putting stories on TikTok this year.

      @jovan Major shift

    2. “It has to be short, it has to be fast,”

      It is useul guidelines for DW ||Jovan||

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    1. The emphasis on assessing academic performance by how many papers a researcher can publish, for example, acts as a powerful incentive for fraud at worst, and for gaming the system at best.

      This could question whole academic system - push for more publishing.

    2. Checking models against reality is what science is supposed to be about, after all.

      Good analogy with role of science in human society.

    3. That can cause “model collapse”.

      Model colapse can be triggered by using AI-genereated data for development of the model. ||JovanNj||||anjadjATdiplomacy.edu||||sorina||

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    1. the company dominates the market for AI accelerator chips, accounting for 86% of such components sold globally;

      86% of AI chips are produced by Nvidia

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    1. The concept intentionally obfuscates (clouds, one might say) the user’s ability to see the existence of hardware.

      Cloud i

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    1. Taylor Swift, the latest high-profile victim of a deepfake, might disagree.

      H

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    1. let’s get rid of bloody nationalism, let’s eradicate corruption, let’s stop the brain drain, let’s provide a decent life and, above all, a future to all our citizens, let’s take care of nature and let’s live in peace. The rest – EU, UN etc. – may come sooner or it may come later: what matters most is that we take better care of people. 

      Very good point! But, elites and mafia cannot make money in such scenario. It is easier to divide people and take money and resources from them.

    2. Bioregionalism, thus the rivers (White Drin, Lepenac, Ibar) and their plains and basins on all sides, could function as an excellent ‘negotiator’ and connect efficiently Kosovo to Albania, Macedonia and Serbia without mobilizing the narrative of ‘Great Serbia’, ‘Great Albania’, etc.

      Great proposal. Unfortunately, it is uitopian. But, worth keeping alive.

    3. The reality check is mind-blowing: the end of SFR Yugoslavia (1991-1992), the end of FR Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) in 2006, the loss of Kosovo (2008) and, let’s not forget, a ‘brain drain’ of unprecedent magnitude. Except for the potential breakup of the United Kingdom (Northern Ireland and Scotland), no other European country has faced such devastating consequences of its policy failures.

      Agree!

    4. the EU is quite supportive of Serbia... as it needs a strong player in the region.

      It is for debate. I agree that it is the case. But, I think it is more 'tactical' than 'strategic' reasoning. EU does not need conflict in the Balkans and they want to close 'Kosovo chapter'. They do not see Serbia as long-term partner.

    5. Both Vučić and Bosnian Serb leader Milorad Dodik have invested so much in pro-Russian sentiment that they are unable to wean themselves off it.

      True!

    6. What is noteworthy is that Serbia is increasingly being mentioned in the same way.

      I am not sure it is the case. Serbia is more mentioned as 'Western Balkans'.

    7. Consequently, the natural European anchorage for the post-Yugoslav states is Central Europe – naturally, I am viewing this in the framework of the European Union.

      Interesting 'shift of geography'.

    8. the Western powers are not in control of this new conflictual world where power has become powerless, while weakness has given rise to power to the point of destabilizing the agenda of the strongest.

      There is a good point here.

    9. Politics is driven less by state initiatives and more by social dynamics –

      I am not sure that it is the case. It could be the case on deeper level. But, we are facing exactly opposite - power polticis everywhere.

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  3. Jan 2024
    1. four-fifths of grade six maths teachers in South Africa did not understand the concepts they were supposed to teach.

      What about training them?

    2. A chatbot can give undivided attention to each child, at any time of day, and never gets tired

      Makes sens

    3. The third reason is that developing countries have gaping shortages of skilled workers: there are nowhere near enough teachers, doctors, engineers or managers.

      Should we use AI or education of people? I can understand using AI in Europe with labour shortage, but in Africa, it does not make sense at all ||sorina||

    4. There are three main reasons for optimism.

      These arguments are not related only to Arica. They are general. Can they apply to Africa? ||sorina||

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    1. Some developers in India are already taking Western models and fine-tuning them with local data to provide a whizzy language-translation service, avoiding the heavy capital costs of model-building.

      b

    2. the phone in their pockets.

      Ok

    3. Pupils in Kenya will soon be asking a chatbot questions about their homework, and the chatbot will be tweaking and improving its lessons in response.

      Is it g

    4. The imf says that a fifth to a quarter of workers there are most exposed to replacement, compared with a third in rich countries.

      Interest

    5. Because emerging countries have fewer white-collar workers, the disruption and the gain to existing firms may be smaller than in the West.

      Possible tru

    6. Most exciting of all, it could help income levels catch up with those in the rich world.

      How?

    7. As it spreads, the technology could raise productivity and shrink gaps in human capital faster than many before it.

      Interesti

    8. N ew technology brings with it both the sweet hope of greater prosperity and the cruel fear of missing out.

      Opportunitiy/threat binary.

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    1. The boss has to show their face to employees regularly, and it cannot be the face of someone who looks like they haven’t slept for two weeks. They have to glad-hand the board, meet investors, attend endless networking events and make time for actual work. It is exhausting to contemplate, let alone

      ||sorina|| why it is not good to be boss.

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    1. with national

      What about 'international standardisation organisations'.

    2. as the WTO, dispute resolution can also be facilitated through global forums.

      Dispute resolution failed in the WTO. Again, we have governments as actors.

    3. 72. Reporting frameworks can be inspired by existing practices of the IAEA for mutual reassurance on nuclear safety and nuclear security, as well as the WHO on disease surveillance.

      In both examples, reporting is done by member states. How realistic is to use this in the case of AI. Is analogy useful?

    4. a techno-prudential model, akin to the macro-prudential framework used to increase resilience in central banking

      How useful is this analogy between AI which is very diverse and rather centralised system of central banks.

    5. The possibility of rogue AI escaping control and posing still larger risks cannot be ruled out.

      Extinction risk stenence

    6. A new mechanism (or mechanisms) is required to facilitate access to data, compute, and talent

      New structuers/mechanisms

    7. The borderless nature of AI tools

      What is 'borderless' nature? AI is created and used within certain jurisdictions always.

    8. could also be coordinated through a body that harmonises policies, builds common understandings, surfaces best practices, supports implementation and promotes peer-to-peer learning

      new body

    9. A consensus on the direction and pace of AI technologies

      What type of consensus is expected?

    10. 45. Rather than proposing any single model for AI governance at this stage, the preliminary recommendations offered in this interim report focus on the principles that should guide the formation of new global governance institutions for AI and the broad functions such institutions would need to perform.

      Slight inherent contradiction.

    11. the possibility that it could pose an existential threat to humanity (even if there are debates over whether and how to assess such threats).

      Mentioning existential threat

    12. 28. Still others relate to human-machine interaction. At the individual level, this includes excessive trust in AI systems (automation bias) and potential de-skilling over time. At the societal level, it encompasses the impact on labour markets if large sections of the workforce are displaced, or on creativity if intellectual property rights are not protected. Societal shifts in the way we relate to each other as humans as more interactions are mediated by AI cannot also be ruled out. These may have unpredictable consequences for family life and for physical and emotional well-being.

      Societal risks

    13. New and existing institutions could form nodes in a network of governance structures.

      This sounds nice. But, nobody knows how it will work in reality as many are for 'coordination' but a few like to be 'coordinated'.

    14. New horizontal coordination and supervisory functions are required and they should be entrusted to a new organizational structure.

      There is a call for a new organisational structure. It is interesting that that the text use 'should' instead of 'may' or 'might' which are typically used in the policy documents.

    15. What should be the threshold or the trigger for identifying red lines (analogous, perhaps, to the ban on human cloning in biomedical research)? How would any such red line be policed and enforced?

      extinction risk

    16. shared and differentiated responsibilities

      Key concept

    17. At the global level, international organizations, governments, and private sector would bear primary responsibility for these functions. Civil society, including academia and independent scientists, would play key roles in building evidence for policy, assessing impact, and holding key actors to account during implementation.

      Different functoins

    18. (a) build scientific consensus on risks, impact, and policy (IPCC); (b) establish global standards (ICAO, ITU, IMO), iterate and adapt them; (c) provide capacity building, mutual assurance and monitoring (IAEA, ICAO); (d) network and pool research resources (CERN); (e) engage diverse stakeholders (ILO, ICANN); (f) facilitate commercial flows and address systemic risks (SWIFT, FATF, FSB).

      inspiration for governance mechanisms.

    19. 36. We also need to meet member states where they are and assist them with what they need in their own contexts given their specific constraints in terms of participation in and adherence to global AI governance, rather than telling them where they should be and what they should do based on a context to which they cannot relate.

      Novelty: avoid lecturing

    20. 25. We examined AI risks firstly from the perspective of technical characteristics of AI. Then we looked at risks through the lens of inappropriate use, including dual-use, and broader considerations of human-machine interaction. Finally, we looked at risks from the perspective of vulnerability.

      Novelty: Comprehensive approach to AI risks combining technical characteristics, inappropriate use and perspective of vulnerability.

    21. Repositories of AI models that can be adapted to different contexts could be the equivalent of generic medicines to expand access, in ways that do not promote AI concentration or consolidation.

      Novelity

    22. Open-Source and sharing of data and models could play an important role in spreading the benefits of AI and developing beneficial data and AI value chains across borders.

      Open source

    23. to develop local AI ecosystems, the ability to train local models on local data, as well as fine-tuning models developed elsewhere to suit local circumstances and purposes.

      Novelity

    24. AI presents distinctly global challenges and opportunities that the UN is uniquely positioned to address, turning a patchwork of evolving initiatives into a coherent, interoperable whole, grounded in universal values agreed by its member states, adaptable across contexts.

      An important 'coordinating function' of the UN

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    1. Their family had spent weeks agonizing over whether to flee as Israeli troops moved into Gaza City’s al-Rimal neighborhood, tanks rolling past their front door and a terrifying cacophony of bombs, quadcopter drones and gunfire thundering all around them.

      @sorina this paragraph is critial for understanding legal aspects of palestine crisis.

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    1. hese models encapsulate a wealth of humanknowledge, linguistic patterns, and cultural nuances.

      Elements for AI training

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    1. The founders' (or France's?) vision

      The French version of open source AI.

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    1. Instagram walls or experiences attracted visitors to a locale and kept them engaged by giving them an activity to perform with their phones, like a restaurant providing colouring books for kids.

      Critical aspect

    2. In non-places, “people are always, and never, at home”, Augé wrote.

      Key statement.

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    1. The group has its main base on the Israel-Lebanon border and has been exchanging fire with Israel since the Gaza war began. The movement is close to Hamas in Gaza.

      ||VladaR|| Vlado, ovo je test. Ovo ima veze sa nasim jucerasnjim razogovorom o encyrption.