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    1. The experts also called attention to the radical impact of digital technologies on any humanitarian response. They highlighted the dependence on digital identity programs – particularly the collection of sensitive biometric data as a condition to access humanitarian aid – despite dangers to human rights as illustrated recently in breaches, data loss, and the exclusion of at-risk communities. They implored humanitarian actors to account for human rights impacts to ensure that digital solutions do not cause further harm to those most vulnerable.

      This is an interesting epistemological challenge: how to link this notion on humanitarian issues to digital identity and human rights.

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    1. This article is interesting for a few reasons:

      Firstly, it introduces 'planetary' into the policy language; after term 'globalisation' got tired and 'tainted', planetary is new term. Thus be prepared for digital planetarisation, cyber planteraism, etc.

      Secondly, authors are trying to revitalise some western concepts (humantiarian intervention) via Chinese philosophical concepts

      Thirdly, we are preparing cooperaiton with Berggruen Institute. I started annotating their text in order to see their thinking.

      ||VladaR|| ||sorina|| ||StephanieBP||||Pavlina||||Katarina_An||

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    1. ||sorina||

      If space should remain a shared resource with equitable access to the orbits and frequencies around Earth, there is a need for additional international regulation.

      The main threat for limiting 'carrying capacity' of low earth orbit (LEO) is launching of commercial mega-constellations with thousands of satellites.

      As space is over-exploited through the 'move fast and break things' approach of corporate sector, there are more and more risks, including:

      • risk of collisions of increasingly busy outer space
      • the light pollution as satellites may soon outnumber visible starts
      • the threat of mega-constellations for environment.

      ||sorina|| possible update. ||Jovan||

    2. International treaties have long recognised that nations must have equitable access to the orbits and frequencies around Earth.

      What is international treaty that indicates 'equitable access to the orbits and frequencies'. Who regulates this?

    3. the over-exploitation of limited space resources

      riks of over-exploitation

    4. Space is a shared resource which must remain available to all nations.

      Key principle.

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    1. Innovation really is the work of multitudes, not singularities.

      Good point

    2. Tesla failed

      Tesla may failed individually (fortune), but he prevailed utimately. He lost 'battle' with Edison but wan the war of innovation on all fronts from electricity to wireless communcatin.

    3. The roots of disruption’s attraction in politicians lie in the long, slow decline of trust in post-war political institutions.

      It is interesting hypothesis that needs to be revisited.

    4. Why has it — and the notion of disruption it captures — acquired so much resonance now?

      No reference to Schumpeter?

    5. untrammelled by compromise

      Use of compromise in negative context.

    6. in this ability to break with established routine.

      Correct.

    7. The 19th-century inventors of the idea of progress imagined that the future would be produced through accumulation. Innovation would build on innovation. Built into the idea of disruption is the sense that successful innovation means abandoning the old entirely for the new.

      I am not sure it is the case. Accumulation happends in different context as in the case of Tesla who brought into his innovation unique family combination of mother (innovaitve genious) and father (Ortodox priest with interest in Asian sprituality). Tesla always higlighted spiritual origins of his innovations.

    8. the erosion of trust in institutions.

      Which institutions? Military are doing well in 'trust analysis' in many countries worldwide. It is not good sign. I would prefer higher standing of diplomacy. But, it is reality.

    9. Why has the idea that the best innovators are disruptive gained such traction over the past decade or so, to the extent that it is now, paradoxically, orthodox to be heterodox?

      It is part of framing of narrative which questioned today. "Ortodoxy' was created by intellectual, media, and policy framing. 'Traction' are gradually developed. It is not necessarily matter of coordinated or counciousness actions. But, it is action of people and institutions that shape the dominant narrative in society.

    10. why do we see disruption as a virtue?

      Who are 'we'? Maybe author? Maybe myself? But, what about Trump or Brexit voters? What about stratas of society that is 'thrown under the bus' of disruption?

      This statement poses clear bias in framing narrative.

    11. It’s all about the individual, and particular sorts of individuals at that.

      Is it only about individuals? Bezos decided to open Amazon while he heard news on radio in his car on the decision of the U.S. Supreme Court on taxation. It gave him a chance to sell books from Washington State to other states without paying taxes.

    12. whom society rewards precisely because they refuse to follow convention.

      It is 'meritocracy' argument. Did 'society' or 'market' rewarded them? Why we equalise society with market?

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    1. La Suisse est fière d’avoir créé dans cet esprit la Fondation GESDA,le Geneva Science Diplomacy Anticipator. GESDAa pour but d’anticiper les défis posés par les nouvelles technologiques, de manière à en maximiser les bénéfices et en minimiser les risques pour l’homme, et à garantir un avenir durable sur notre planète.

      GESDA initiative

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    1. Theeffortstowardsaso-calledDigitalGenevaConventionarejustifiedandneeded

      Call for Digital Geneva Convention

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    1. And crises like the lack of guardrails around promising new technologiesto healdisease, connect people and expand opportunity.

      Lack of guardrails

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  2. Sep 2022
    1. ||VladaR||||AndrijanaG||||Katarina_An|| Here is text of Samarkand Declaration. I started annotating generic and digital aspects.

    2. a more representative, democratic, just and multipolar world order

      New framing to typical diplomatic language.

    3. stronger multipolarity, increased interconnectedness, accelerated pace of informatization and digitalization.

      three important sharpers of modern era.

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    1. 1.7.1 – Static Site Compatibility

      Newsletter Glue - Static Site Compatibility

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    1. This is an interesting text on ways how to solve a problem with proper display of drop caps on the web.

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    1. witzerland is well positioned to make a credible contribution towards the specification of the applicable rules in the digital space. This includes seeking to work more closely with the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) on the protection of civilians in the digital space during armed conflicts

      Swiss strategic priorities

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    1. The technological competition was a sort of proxy war.

      Digitalisation will be in the core of technological competition.

    2. we are in an age of quite radical uncertainty, one in which the ability to learn and adapt nimbly to unexpected events is far more valuable than either predictions or overly specific preparations.

      This is crucial insight that our ability to learn and adapt is more important than predictions and preparations.

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    1. Digital humanitarianism, which refers to interventions conducted online, usually without in-person presence, is a product of information and technological advancement.

      What is digital humanitarianism?

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  3. Aug 2022
    1. 7. Second, the Group is also concerned regarding stakeholders consultations convened by the co-facilitators for the modalities resolution. This is quite unusual and do not have past precedence for any UN meeting. Negotiations on modalities resolutions have been solely under the domain of member states.

      Not very multistakeholdre enthusiastic.

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    1. This could include connecting those not yet connected; equitable use of digital public goods; avoiding fragmentation of the internet; providing people with options for how their data is used; safeguarding human rights in digital spaces; introducing accountability for disinformation and misleading content; and aligning the regulation of artificial intelligence with our universally shared values.

      The UN SG suggests the following issues to be covered in the Global Digital Compact:

      • access and connectivity
      • digital public good
      • preventing Internet fragmentation
      • data protection and privacy
      • safeguarding human rights in digital spaces
      • accountability for disinformation and misleading content
      • artificial intelligence

      ||Jovan||||sorina||

    2. This could include a commitment to negotiate an international instrument on the prevention of an arms race in outer space; common principles for the governance of outer space activities; and measures to accelerate agreement on the removal of space debris, and to coordinate space traffic.

      In the Pact for the Future which should be adopted during the UN Summit for the Future to be held in September 2023, one of seven pillars is outer space.

      The UN SG aims to achieve a high-level political agreement on the peaceful, secure and sustainable use of outer space with commitment 'to negotiate an international instrument on the prevention of an arms race in outer space; common principles for the governance of outer space activities; and measures to accelerate agreement on the removal of space debris, and to coordinate space traffic.'

      You can more information in the UN SG remarks to the UN GA Consultation on 'Our Common Agenda'.

    3. UN SG established terminology that will be used. It will be the UN Pact for the Future with 7 elements

      1. A New Agenda for Peace
      2. A Global Digital Compact
      3. A Declaration on Future Generations
      4. Outer Space (international instrument on the prevention on an arms race in outer space
      5. The Emergency Platform
      6. More Effective Multilateral Arrangements
      7. 'Seventh thread' will include topics in making: integrity in public information, a commitment to ensuring meaningful youth engagement at the UN, commitment to metric that go beyond GDP and take vulnerabilities into account.

      Other issues of the Pact for Future will include: human rights including safeguarding human rights in digital spaces, gender equality, inclusion of marginalised groups,

      UN SG also mentioned the following other initiatives as part of 'Our Common Agenda':

      • the Scientific Advisory Mechanisms
      • Transformation towards a UN 2.0 including: a new culture and new capabilities in data, digital innovation, behavioural science, and strategic foresight.
    4. a New Agenda for Peace.

      ||Jovan||

      For the Peace Week, you can consider this linkage to the UN Pact for Future and in particular development of the UN toolbox to prevent the outbreak and escalation of hostilities on land, at sea, in space and in cyberspace.

    5. Four countries have already defaulted on their debts

      What are 4 countries?

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    1. As well as satisfying Western public opinion, these measures have strategic objectives. The short-term goal, at least initially, was to trigger a liquidity and balance-of-payments crisis in Russia that would make it hard to finance the Ukraine war and thus alter the Kremlin’s incentives. In the long run the intent is to impair Russia’s productive capacity and technological sophistication so that, if Vladimir Putin aspires to invade another country, he would have fewer resources to hand. A final aim is to deter others from warmongering.

      reasons for sanctions

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    1. regain autarchy in key areas, from cyber components to pharmaceutical products

      What would be the cost of this autarchy? Can Swiss small economy support economic autharchy? How far this autarchy should extend (only Switzlerand, EU, USA, like-minded countries, developing countries)?

    2. On the strategic level there were Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT I and SALT II); The Anti-Ballistic Missile Agreement (ABM Treaty), Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START I and II) and the «New START» agreement. At the intermediate range level there was INF (Interme

      A good summary of the main disarmament agreements.

    3. the installation of a «red phone» between Washington and Moscow to be able to speak in a crisis with each other directly and immediately.

      Are there red phones today? Do USA and Russia communicate in time of crisis?

    4. The creation of NATO in 1949 (whose purpose it, as a British general put it, was to keep the Russians out, the Americans in, and the Germans down)

      Good summary of raison d' etre of NATO.

    5. Many felt that it would be possible to put the genie back into the bottle.

      It was not possible to reverse impact of nuclear technology.

    6. Ambassador Theodor H. Winkler asks, "Has The West been Sleeping?" in his article for Stratos Digital journal. His answer is positive. The West is falling behind China and Russia in many military and strategic areas.

      One reason was the West's acceptance of the "end of history" view after the Cold War. The Ukraine war serves as a wake up call.

      Ambassador Winkler shared his thoughts on both the changes in thinking about war, security, politics, and practical steps to be taken to avoid strategic sleepwalking in Western societies.

    7. France, where control of the warheads and the land-based launchers lay not with the armed forces but with the Gendarmerie nationale, shows the same attitude.

      Interesting phenomenon

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    1. The TikTok threat to Google’s business isn’t just limited to YouTube, as it turns out. Core Google services, including Search and Maps, are also being impacted by a growing preference for social media and videos as the first stop on younger users’ path to discovery, a Google exec acknowledged today, speaking at an industry event.

      It is interesting to see that Google is getting threatened even on search function by TikTok and Instagram.

      We should monitor this development.

      ||Jovan||

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    1. On 5 July, the USA National Institute for Standardisation and Technology (NIST) selected candidate to become standard for Post-Quantum Cryptography (PQC)

      The new PQC standards should prevent risk that powerful quantum computing will pose to existing cryptography and encryption of digital traffic.

      It is anticipatory standard that should prevent risk that will come with deployment of quantum computing for cracking encrypted communication.

      See more here: https://csrc.nist.gov/projects/post-quantum-cryptography

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    1. We will now allow singular use of data alongside the plural. Specifically, when considered as a concept—as in data is the new oil—the singular will be acceptable, as well as when the data in question is considered as a mass (the data on this mobile-phone plan is insufficient). However, when data points are considered as a group of pieces of information, the plural should still be used: data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration indicate the hottest summer of all time.

      The Economist allows use of data as both singular and plural. For example, data is the new oil. But, as it was indicated 'data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration indicate the hottest summer of all time.'

      The Economist explains plural and singular use of 'data' here.

    2. We will now allow singular use of data alongside the plural. Specifically, when considered as a concept—as in data is the new oil—the singular will be acceptable, as well as when the data in question is considered as a mass (the data on this mobile-phone plan is insufficient). However, when data points are considered as a group of pieces of information, the plural should still be used: data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration indicate the hottest summer of all time.

      ||GingerP|| We should update our editorial text on data.

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    1. Tencent is Chinese company behind WeChat, one of the most used Internet applications. Tencent is also major gaming company globally. It has investment in hundreds of tech start-ups.

      While Tencent is strong in China, its global activiteis could be endangered by Splinternet building around Sino-American digital tensions.

      More at the Economist article.

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    1. This is rare, optimistic, article on EU and Brussels. Author returns after 10 years to Brussels. EU survived 'decennium horribilis'.

      EU has not moved into direction of more democarcy. National governments make deals in the late night negotiations. But, while they criticise Brussels, they often pass difficult political issues to the EU.

      New mantra is 'a Europe that protects'. But the real question is if EU will manage to protect from problems that are beyond EU's power to shape.

    2. No national watchdog in Europe could boss around an Amazon or Google. The eu’s regulation of such tech giants, in contrast, has given the concerns of Europeans, whether on privacy or rapacious business models, real heft.

      Good point on limitations of national governments in handling big tech companies.

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    1. Something for Sorina and her work on standardisation. It is a very interesting story on the way how the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) works. NIST's work is explained on examples of peanut butter and marijuna/hemp.

    2. Often they began as repositories for lumps of metal of precisely a kilogram’s mass or a metre’s length, though these fundamental units are now defined in terms of natural phenomena rather than iridium-platinum artefacts.

      How standards started?

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    1. China is more complex politically and socially than it is portrayed in most of the Western media. The Economist brings an interesting article on neo-Maoist group 'Red song society'.

      The ruling elite walks delicate line of tolerating neo-Maoist to the point that may (in)directly criticise, especially, social policy of the Communist party.

      In this case, government-controlled media is trying to stop Red song society through economic fines for misuse of copyright-materials. This court case cannot happen without approval of the Communist Party.

      it is interesting that 'economist censorship' is becoming favourite approach in countries worldwide. Instead of closing media outliet, they are forced to close via high fines for breach of copyright law or libel.

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    1. The future of the United States will determine future of the world. In the center of America's future is future of Donalnd Trump.

      This article shows how the raid on Mar-a-Lago compound may shake the very foundation of the United States (and the world).

      Mishandling of classified document could be legally sufficient but, politically, most likely not sufficient to stop Trump's return to political leadership.

      Fasten seat belts!

    2. not giving direct orders that might implicate him but speaking “in a code.” The president who had the foresight to bar the White House photographer from his presence on January 6th, and leave no phone trail that day, seems unlikely to have left incriminating evidence lying around Mar-a-Lago.

      It is serious insight about Trump's modus operandi.

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    1. Trust your instinct. Do not overthink. Avoid 'paralysis by analysis'.

      These are some advises from the Economist. Big organisations are designed to stamp our instinct, which helped us to survive for centuries as much as our rationality. Should we rethink organisations of modern era? Could a bit of survival instinct help us to save us from crazy decision that may end humanity?

      This text opens many questions. Answers could be discovered by intuition. The first step is to decide faster, move on, reflect, adjust, and move on.

      We advanced a lot in this direction over the last few years especially on adjusting Diplo's tech and creative activities. Now, we should move to content and courses.

      Trust your guts more! There is a lot of intelligence in guts!

    2. When to use intuition in the workplace rests on its own form of pattern recognition.

      Can AI and pattern recognition help intuition? ||JovanNj||||anjadjATdiplomacy.edu||

    3. Plenty of research has shown that intuition becomes more unerring with experience.

      intuition is condensed experience.

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    1. During impulse propagation in the neurons of the brain, at the level of the synaptic knob of specific neurons, there is the release of Nitric Oxide which is a neurotransmitter. This Nitric Oxide then diffuses into the blood capillaries surrounding the neurons and it is transported to the lungs where it diffuses into the Alveoli and it is expired. The presence of this gas in the outer space influences the thought or state of consciousness of the indi-vidual around the area covered by the gas. This is done through inspiration of the gas which is transported to the brain by the circulatory system where it acts as a neurotransmitter to the neurons specific to it and produces the same thoughts. Much is not to be said about this means of communication because the quantity of gas produce and the area covered are mild

      ||MilicaVK||||anjadjATdiplomacy.edu||||JovanNj|| Pozdrav svima, Aleksa mi je poslao zanimljiv tekst o naucnoj bazi 'hemije izmedju ljudi' (kako komuniciramo transmiterima. Ovo je zanimljiva tema za 'cognitive proximity', diplomatiju, i sastanke. Pz, Jovan

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    1. Nathaniel Fick was appointed U.S. Ambassador at-large to Cyberspace Policy and Digital Policy. His new title tries to balance tensions between cyber and digital. Will he become a digital or cyber ambassador?

      It's also interesting to see that he frames digital foreign policy's approach around the traditional multilateral "trinity" architecture of security, economy and human rights.

      SECURITY: he reiterates traditional U.S. approach to cybersecurity. A new element is that it brings cybercrime in proximity to cybersecurity which the U.S. has keeping separate in international relations.

      ECONOMY: the focus is on the free flow of data, open/transparent standards, multistakeholder Internet governance, and Open RAN.

      HUMAN RIGHTS: he calls for digital freedom and inclusion.

      He also plans to develop institutional capacity in the U.S. diplomacy to follow digital/cyber topics.

    2. Weareinaglobalcontestforademocraticfutureinwhichwecanallusetechnologytoreachourfullpotentialandagainstanauthoritarianfutureinwhichtechnologyisharnessedtorepressfreeexpressionanddestabilizeopen,democraticsocieties

      Value-centered digitaliaiton

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    1. In our research on Russian state-backed media coverage of the #BlackLivesMatter movement, we show how attributable state media outlets, posting on Facebook, strategically employed race and racism to simultaneously promote the movement (on some channels) and undermine it (on others).

      to find this research ||Jovan||

    2. coordinated inauthentic behavior (CIB)

      @jovan New acronymes to be added to our dictionarya nd acronyme database.

    3. Russia has a long history of “full spectrum” information operations that span the range of available communication mediums.

      ||Jovan|| Could you find more info on this approach of 'full spectrum' information operations.

    4. Meta announced plans to demote Russian state-backed media (including regional channels) on Facebook and Instagram,

      ||Jovan|| Here is an intereting survey of social media monitoring of the Ukraine war.

    5. TITLE: Role of Telegram and other emerging platforms in the Ukraine war

      CONTENT: There is growing concern in the Western countries that Russian propaganda in the Ukraine war is using intensively Telegram and other new social media platforms. While mainstream platforms including Twitter and Facebook/Meta exercised intensive content moderation around the Ukraine war, new platforms have more relaxed approach.

      You can consult this article for more details about the challenge of what they call 'unmoderated platform' (not currect description because all platforms are moderated to some extend).

      Topic: Content policy, Tag: Ukraine crisis Source: Lawfare

    6. overt information operations and the rise of social media propaganda on alternative platforms like Telegram.

      two key aspects of ongoing information operations

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    1. Solve Reader Problems with Better Book Descriptions (for Non-Fiction)

      How to draft book description?

      ||minam||

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    1. ||minam||||viktormATdiplomacy.edu|| Ovo je dobar tekst o psihologiji 'cover page'. Objasnjava dinamiku strane, fontove, nacin citanja, itd.

      Pozdrav, Jovan

    2. But a good rule of thumb is to mimic the eye movement of reading. Because your cover can be the primer for the experience you want your will-be reader to have.

      eye movement.

    3. the non-fiction covers that perform best are nearly always simple in design, with all of the reader’s attention focused on the title and subtitle.

      We have to clearly communiate title and sbutitle.

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    1. Diplomats are also managers but they are rarely trained in management skills.

      Junior diplomats have often to manage local staff. Heads of missions have to manage complete mission from human resources to financial issues.

      This article reflects on unique role of Deputy Chief of Mission (DCM) which has to manage diplomatic mission. This role becomes particularly complex and, often, difficult is the head of mission is political appointee as it is often the case in the US diplomacy.

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    1. From securing semi-conductor supply chains to regulating data flows, techno-nationalism is on the political agenda of western democracies and eastern nations alike. Over the next two years as the government seeks to put in place a comprehensive digital regulatory framework governing data, privacy, apps and algorithms, engaging the first digital generation of new voters on techno-nationalism will be crucial at every step.

      A good summary of digital governance.

    2. While China requires licences for online games by a dedicated gaming regulator, Indonesia requires formal registration to be compliant with local laws governing what are called “private electronic systems”.

      It is a very interesting regulatory system.

    3. We are already witnessing a wave of regulatory moves from Indonesia on not just controlling online gaming apps and services but also actively promoting indigenously developed gaming apps.

      More and more developments around online gaming.

    4. that online gaming has nearly five times the number of users relative to those using the internet for online education.

      More use of online gaming than online education.

    5. withdrawing the earlier proposed Personal Data Protection Bill,

      What is the status of this Bill?

    1. A new U.S. Strategy Towards Sub-Saharan Africa outlines the US priorities in the growing competition for Africa with, in particular, China.

      Digitalisation plays an important role as an 'accelerator' of sustainable development.

      The U.S. strategy focuses on a few issues on digital ecosystem aimed at building open, reliable, Interoperable, and secure Internet.

      • digitalisation of financial services and records;
      • building infrastructure: undersea cables, expanding of a number of data centres.
      • investing in digital business in Africa
      • cole for Open RAN technology for telecom infrastructure relates to Huawei monopoly and proprietary technology
      • digital democracy and fight against digital authoritarianism
      • fight against disinformation and gender-based online harassment
      • establish standards for responsible conduct in cyberspace.
      • building skills and knowledge through training and courses in science, technology, engineering, and math.
    2. digital democracy programming, defend against digital authoritarianism, fight back against disinformation, combat gender-based online harassment and abuse, and establish standards for responsible conduct in cyberspace

      Focus issues to be covered.

    3. while advocating for open technology platforms like Open RAN t

      What about open code approach on other technologies such as website, etc.

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    1. ||JovanNj|| kakav izgleda ovaj sistem za crtanje

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    1. Why your meetings are a waste of time

      Why your meetings are a waste of time?

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    1. The island's air defense identification zone was actually the brainchild of the United States,

      A concept of establishing air defense identification zone is not based in international law. If it is used worldwide it may become international customary law. Usually customary law is either codified in formal treaty (e.g. protocol to the UNCLOS) or formalised by the advisory opinion or legal judgement of International Court of Justice in the Hague.

    2. they are unilaterally declared buffer areas that extend beyond territorial airspace

      Exactly, it is not matter of international law.

    3. China disregard international law norms left and right for decades

      Unfortunately, many other countries are doing the same. The main problem, in my view, is that by undermining the Law of the Sea could have far-reaching consequences for free navigation, trade and essentially legal pillar of our era that dates back far in the history.

    4. the five permanent members of the Security Council, including both China and the United States, have veto power, so they can block any UN attempt to enforce international law.

      It is true as we can see now in Ukraine as well where principle of territorial integrity is breached in Russia or what was the case with Kosovo in 1999.

      Here is important to make a distinction. The fact that the law is not enforced does not mean that actions is not illegal. Killing another person is illegal even if the killer is not arrested and sentenced.

      This analogy with criminal law is partial as in this case it is not a problem of finding 'killer'.

      But, apart from this weakness in analogy, the principle remain that when legal rule is breached it is illegal action even when it is not possible to enforce this rule.

    5. "It would run against international law, but international law is flimsy and open to the interpretation of every country that decides whether or not they want to follow it or enforce it,"

      It is true. Might is right as we are seeing in Ukraine for example. But, it does not mean that this, unfortunately, failure of international law, should be used to undermine logic that exists.

      It is particularly tricky in the field of law of the sea which has long legal tradition starting with Hugo Grotius Mare Liberum published back in 1609. The Law of the sea is much older than modern international law.

    6. convention

      It is more curtesy than convention.

    7. "The reality is Taiwan exists. Taiwan is autonomous. It is effectively independent of any other country. It elects its own government, collects its own taxes, defends its own borders. So for all intents and purposes, Taiwan is a country,"

      It is policy argument describing the situation. But it is not legal one.

    8. most of the world treated Taiwan as if it were an independent country

      What does it mean legally? There could be one basis for this argument. It is that countries that 'treated' Taiwan as independent country have been doing it with the understanding that Taiwan is independent country legally. They used 'opinion iuris' which is key part of international customary law. In addition, the practice has to be uniform in order to become law. It is not in the case. Thus, it is difficult to find basis in international law for applying rules on territorial waters.

    9. China is a signatory to UNCLOS, signing on December 10, 1982, and ratifying it in 1996. Taiwan is not.

      it should not be a problem since UNCLOS is considered to be codification of customary law. The rule of 12 nautical miles is established in customary law and already codified by pre-UNCLOS conventions on the law of the sea from 1958.

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