123 Matching Annotations
  1. Oct 2020
    1. However, a reportby the United KingdomIntelligence and Security Committee titled Foreign Involvement in the Critical National Infrastructure; The implications for national securityobserved that “[a]ny policy which seeks to block all Chinese companies from any future contracts relating to [Critical National Infrastructure] projects is not only impractical but, crucially, given the predominance of Chinese-manufactured and -developed equipment, is unlikely to result in the national security protection envisaged.

      Interesting conclusion.

    2. During the same period, Apple reportedly refusedChina’s requests for its source code.35Meanwhile, companies including IBM, Hewlett-Packard, McAfee, Cisco, and the German company SAP agreedto use intermediary companies to allow the source code for their products to be inspected under requirements imposed by Russia’s Federal Security Service

      E-commerce course update.

    Created with Sketch. Visit annotations in context

    Created with Sketch. Tags

    Created with Sketch. Annotators

    Created with Sketch. URL

    1. Interesting text on the shift from a maturity-based to a risk-based cybersecurity. It discusses how this shift should translate into concrete measures within companies. Some elements could be interesting for course updates, including the security module on the AI course. Perhaps also interesting for cybersecurity ||VladaR||

    Created with Sketch. Visit annotations in context

    Created with Sketch. Tags

    Created with Sketch. Annotators

    Created with Sketch. URL

  2. Sep 2020
    1. One way to address this challenge may be to develop regional compe-tition rules and authorities, like the COMESA16Competition Commission in Africa, which reviews mergers affecting the COMESA region.

      Regional competition authorities as a way forward. ||Jovan||

    2. he wide-reaching influence of digital technologies on people’s lives has led to calls for a broader definition of consumer welfare in assessing the harm of insufficient competition, covering non-price factors such as quality, choice, privacy,

      Good point. Adapt definition of consumer welfare.

    3. A better strategy for evaluating firm behaviour is to consider competitive relationships and strategies across markets, entry barriers, con-flicts of interest, the emergence of gatekeepers and bottlenecks, the use and control of data, and the dynamics of bargaining power.

      Competition authorities should take these into account.

    4. Countries with limited capacity to transform digital data into digital intelligence are constrained in their potential to capture economic value from data. To prevent dependence on a small group of advanced countries in the increasingly data-driven economy, national development strategies need to include digital upgrading (value addition) in data value chains. This would enhance domestic capacities to move from treating data as raw material to processing digital data and using artificial intelligence. It may involve designing national data policies and strategies to seize opportunities that the expansion of data can create, and manage associated risks and challenges

      Transforming data into intelligence

    5. POLICIES AND STRATEGIES TO CLOSE THE DIGITAL DIVIDE AMONG AND WITHIN COUNTRIESInnovation policy

      Take into account when updating the e-commerce and AI course

    6. The digital age creates new challenges for peace and security

      Security angle

    7. Roughly half of total electricity used by the Internet was due to consumer devices such as computers, mobile phones, laptops and TVs. The remainder was due to local, fixed and mobile networks, data centres and manufacturing of various components.

      Interesting information and graphic.

    8. A significant concentration of market power can have negative implications on several fronts

      Negative consequences of market concentration

    9. The network effect, or the effect that an additional user has on the value of a product to others, and the increasing returns to scale, are both salient features of the digital economy that have enabled a small number of digital platforms to dominate markets. Possessing troves of data and algorithms to process them, these platforms can engage in anticompetitive behaviours that prevent others from enter-ing the market or competing efficiently

      Digital tech and market concentration

    10. Interactions with other megatrendsThe relationship between the rapid spread of digital technologies and the other four megatrends is complex and bidirectional

      This whole section could be useful in production of our texts linking digital to SDGs, for example. ||Jovan|| ||StephanieBP||

    11. FIGURE 5.2 LARGE PARTS OF THE WORLD ARE MISSING OUT ON TECHNOLOGY CREATION AND USE

      For the AI and e-commerce course. ||kat_hone|| it could be useful to you as well.

    12. illustrates two salient features in the creation and use of frontier digital technologies for production. First, large parts of the world, especially on the African continent, remain completely excluded.3 These countries are not even importing any significant volumes of the most representative goods. Second, even among countries with some activity in frontier digital production technologies, the roles are quite diverse. Latecomers, for instance, are entering the race, but it is not yet clear if they will become followers. Among the followers, a large number are mainly importing capital goods produced aboard, with very little or no domestic innovation and few exports. Their prospects to advance are limited, as this will require large investment

      Figures on the creation and use of frontier digital technologies: advanced robotics, computer-aided manufacturing, additive manufacturing and machine learning. ||Jovan||

    13. States of America; Japan; Germany; China; Taiwan, Province of China; France; Switzerland; the United Kingdom; the Republic of Korea and the Netherlands

      Switzerland on this top list that leads the world on advanced technology. ||Jovan||

    14. These top economies account for almost all global activity in each area – above 90 per cent.

      Patents, imports and exports of advanced technologies. Interesting amount and the chart that follows is also very interesting.

    15. The United Nations is uniquely positioned to facilitate dialogue among stakeholders to develop a global compact on agreed principles for managing frontier technologies. It can bring Member States and all relevant stakeholders together to forge consensus on legal and ethical standards, including to guide research and development.

      That's a poor role for the UN, focused on AI-type of developments. Considering all that has been said in the section about technology and the digital economy, is there no role, for example, in promoting competitiveness?

    16. help firms develop strategies to extract and exploit their data; address the growing market concentration and dominance in the data economy; enhance consumer protection; and manage the cross-border flow of data.

      Internationally: address data concentration. Nationally: support companies to better extract and exploit data. What does "manage" data flows mean?

    17. Digitalization and data policies to secure and maximize value from the digital economy may involve aspects such as national data strategies, protections of the rights of individuals, open-data guidelines, standards for the interoperability of data functions and promotion of skills relevant for the data economy. Governments should deal with existing and emerging barriers to the growth of their domestic data markets;

      Interesting reference to "national data policies" and "national data markets".

    18. A mix of instruments, including innovative financing mechanisms, will likely be required. And public investment must play a complementary role, crowding in rather than crowding out private investment.

      Financing digital innovation in developing countries.

    19. To secure a digital future for the many, domes-tic and international policies should go beyond simply enlisting more developing country users and consumers into the digital economy. They should enable the building of domestic capabil-ities to create and capture value. Only then can digitalization fully support the 2030 Agenda.

      Inclusion not only as consumers, but as capable producing and capturing value.

    20. mpact on the SDGs

      Summary of how digital technologies impact SDGs

    21. The digital technology megatrend interacts with existing global patterns of inequality. Without compensating measures, innovators can take undue advantage of the digital divide compared to other groups. Countries with significant innovative activities will always preserve a lead over countries that mainly adopt new technol-ogies (“follower countries”), much less those that continue to struggle to provide electricity, connectivity, water, sanitation and basic health technologies. Within countries, the digital divide determines which population groups will benefit from technological advances.

      Digital technology making inequalities entrenched.

    22. Technological innovation and digitalization have clearly accentuated income inequalities.

      Digital divide affecting other social and economic divides.

    23. The sheer size of the crisis threatens everything that has been achieved in sustainable development over the past five years, and much of the development progress made under the MDGs. Depending on how quickly the economies of the world can fully reopen and how soon the recovery process can actually begin, hundreds of millions of people around the world could be at risk of falling back into poverty, reversing the gains of the last two decades

      Strong statement as it comes from the UN Economist Network ||Jovan||

    24. o pervasive and well-established, in so many different countries and societies, that they seem beyond the control of policy, obeying their own internal momentum.And yet, they all result from human activity.

      Good call to responsibility amidst claims of technology going rogue.

    Created with Sketch. Visit annotations in context

    Created with Sketch. Tags

    Created with Sketch. Annotators

    Created with Sketch. URL

    1. We will tackle unconscious bias that exists in people, institutions and even in algorithms

      Whole section of the speech focused on HR is interesting ||GingerP||

    2. We will soon present an economic recovery package for the Western Balkans focusing on a number of regional investment initiatives.

      It would be interesting follow if there will be investment on digital issues. ||Jovan|| ||VladaR||

    3. We might not always agree with recent decisions by the White House. But we will always cherish the transatlantic alliance – based on shared values and history, and an unbreakable bond between our people. So whatever may happen later this year, we are ready to build a new transatlantic agenda. To strengthen our bilateral partnership – be it on trade, tech or taxation.

      Alliance to the Western civilization and values remain clear.

    4. Be it in Hong Kong, Moscow or Minsk: Europe must take a clear and swift position

      Giving names to the big HR trouble makers and issues. Kudos for the clarity.

    5. But what holds us back? Why are even simple statements on EU values delayed, watered down or held hostage for other motives? When Member States say Europe is too slow, I say to them be courageous and finally move to qualified majority voting – at least on human rights and sanctions implementation. 

      Very brave statement and concrete move (proposal below) considering the present times for EU (Brexit, etc). Maybe interesting to follow from a HR-angle ||GingerP||

    6. European Magnitsky Act

      "Magnitsky legislation refers to laws providing for governmental sanctions against foreign individuals who have committed human rights abuses or been involved in significant corruption"

    7. a negotiating partner, an economic competitor and a systemic rival.

      Very rich yet succinct statement about EU-China relations. It would be interesting to unpack what each of these elements mean. ||Jovan|| ||VladaR||

    8. EU's unmatched convening power in action.  

      Interesting that EU highlights its "convening power". Usually we talk about the convening power of IOs in situations like this, but here it is the EU convening WHO, among other actors. A sign of times for multilateralism? ||Jovan|| Ps.The continuation of the speech answers this question clearly.

    9. There has never been a better time to invest in European tech companies with new digital hubs growing everywhere from Sofia to Lisbon to Katowice.  We have the people, the ideas and the strength as a Union to succeed. And this is why we will invest 20% of NextGenerationEU on digital. We want to lead the way, the European way, to the Digital Age: based on our values, our strength, our global ambitions.

      Creating European champions, with European values justifying increase in funding.

    10. Europe's digital sovereignty

      Keep note and cf. with other ideas (ex. data sovereignty). ||MariliaM||

    11. And it is why we will build a European cloud as part of NextGenerationEU - based on GaiaX.

      What will this mean, in practice? Look for information ||MariliaM||

    12. And this is why we need to secure this data for Europe and make it widely accessible. 

      Interesting that EU is speaking about securing industrial data for the benefit of Europe. Until recently, this was mostly a developing country issue (re. the African group talking about digital industrial development). ||Jovan||

    13. new industry strategy in March
    14. Authorising more than 3 trillion euro in support to companies and industry:

      Before the Covid crises took place, EU countries were already moving towards flexibility that would allow them to groom national champions, including in the digital sector. Will the crisis-related state-aid reinforce this trend?

    15. general escape clause

      "The clause allows for temporary deviation, without endangering fiscal sustainability, from the normal requirements for all Member States to pursue fiscal policy in a situation of generalised crisis caused by a severe economic downturn of the euro area or the EU as a whole"

    16. These SMEs are the motor of our economy and will be the engine of our recovery.

      Good statement.

    17. Conference on the Future of Europe

      Timetable of the Conference on the Future of Europe process: 12/13 December 2019 – First Discussion at the EUCO January 2020 – Conference concept / Interinstitutional mandate February 2020 – Kick-Off of Phase 1 (in particular transnational lists, lead candidate system, issues related to citizens’ participation in EU institutions/matters) July 2020 – Kick-Off Conference of Phase 2 in Brussels second half 2020 – Launch of EU-wide expert meetings and citizens dialogues (by EU institutions and member states) 2021 – Thematic and midterm review conferences first half 2022 – Closing Conference

      Interesting process to follow. Maybe relevant for DW ||AndrijanaG|| ||StephanieBP||

    18. This new agency will support our capacity and readiness to respond to cross-border threats and emergencies – whether of natural or deliberate origin. We need strategic stockpiling to address supply chain dependencies

      Geopolitical angle of the reinforced health policy.

    19. And thanks to our unique social market economy, Europe can do just that. It is above all a human economy that protects us against the great risks of life

      Stand its ground and distinguishes itself from the American market-centered economy.

    Created with Sketch. Visit annotations in context

    Created with Sketch. Tags

    Created with Sketch. Annotators

    Created with Sketch. URL

    1. Global data flows underpin global value chains (GVCs), creating new opportunities for participation in international trade.32 For many economies, participation in GVCs is the deciding factor for trading internationally. More than 50 percent of trade in goods and over 70 percent of trade in services is in intermediate inputs.33 Data and digital technologies are affecting GVC participation in several ways. The development of these value chains has been enabled by global connectivity and cross-border data flows that facilitate communications and can be used to coordinate logistics.34 Global data flows are also enabling so-called “supply chain 4.0”—where information flows are integrated and omnidirectional instead of linear.3

      Good paragraph about the importance of data flows for inclusion in GVCs. ||MariliaM||

    2. Data collection and analysis are adding value to goods exports through so-called “servicification.”

      Look for more information on this concept. ||MariliaM||

    3. taking account of the value of services embedded in goods exports, such as the design, professional service, and IT contributions tomanufactured goods, services make up over 55 percent of total EU exports.

      Interesting figure. Servicification affecting trade in goods. ||MariliaM||

    4. Lucian Cernat and Zornitsa Kutlina-Dimitrova, THINKING IN A BOX: A ‘MODE 5’ APPROACH TO SERVICE TRADE, DG Trade Chief Economist Note, Issue 1 March 2014

      Check for e-commerce course update

    5. According to the WTO, using digital technologies to reduce trade costs could increase world trade by up to 34 percent by 2030.23

      Some figures for e-commerce course update ||MariliaM||

    6. around 12 percent of global goods trade is via international e-commerce.18 According to a 2019 U.N. Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) report, e-commerce globally was worth $29 trillion in 2017, with around 1.3 billion people shopping online—up 12 percent from the previous year.19

      Some figures for e-commerce course update ||MariliaM||

    7. Addressing these issues requires a new way of thinking about the trade rules for cybersecurity.What is needed is a more fine-grained understanding of the types of cybersecurity risk. Consideration should be given to developing a new set of cybersecurity-specific trade rules. This could include using trade policy to support the development of cybersecurity standards, commitments to good regulatory practice and to using risk assessments as a basis for cybersecurity regulation.

      Author does not argue that cybersecurity should be detangled from trade (as most IG authors do), but that trade norms (and security exceptions) should be fine-tuned to deal specifically with cybersecurity. ||VladaR|| ||Jovan|| I raised this idea with Lee from the WTO and she disagrees. She believes the national security exception is enough, and that the WTO and FTAs should not go any further on cybsersecurity. The role of the (very general) cybersecurity provisions in FTAs should be to raise awareness among the trade departments that they need to collaborate with other departments who are actually responsible for cybersecurity.

    8. Many U.S. and Chinese cybersecurity measures are likely to restrict cross-border data flows and digital trade. These include data-localization requirements and import and investmentrestrictions on data and information technology (IT) products, particularly from countries or along supply chains where cyber risk is high. Import restrictions including higher tariffs are also being used to punish and deter cyberattacks.

      Some areas in which the link between cybersecurity and trade are clear. May be a useful paragraph for our writings ||VladaR||

    Created with Sketch. Visit annotations in context

    Created with Sketch. Tags

    Created with Sketch. Annotators

    Created with Sketch. URL

    1. International institutions are beginning to break, paralyzed by too much bureaucracy, too little investment, and intense major power rivalry.

      It would be interesting to know if these kinds of negative scenarios resonate in International Geneva and provoke anxiety or not at all.

    2. desire to reshape international institutions and rules to suit its power and preferences

      Concrete examples of this desire?

    3. technological dynamism

      Technologies are quite different from the inter-war period, through. Then, they were firmly nationally grounded; now, they are essentially networked, increasing global interdependence and the cost of conflict.

    4. a more anarchic order looming dimly beyond

      Time to re-read Hedley Bull :) What are the insights (if any) that this IR classic could provide us?

    Created with Sketch. Visit annotations in context

    Created with Sketch. Annotators

    Created with Sketch. URL

    1. How do we ensure that any regulatory responses do not interfere with the Internet’s underlying properties, i.e. that they do not “break” the Internet?

      Direct big question proposed by the report that requires future research (Q. 29) ||MariliaM||

    2. If regulation were needed to address consolidation, would it be better to go via the route of consumer protection, competition, or administrative law?

      Direct big question proposed by the report that requires future research (Q. 28) ||MariliaM||

    3. How do the technical community and other stakeholders ensure that there continues to be thriving development and pipeline of open standards that contribute to ensuring continued interoperability and data portability as the Internet economy evolves?

      Direct big question proposed by the report that requires future research (Q. 27) ||MariliaM||

    4. How does concentration in particular services effect the development of standard and non-standard protocols on the Internet?

      Direct big question proposed by the report that requires future research (Q. 26) ||MariliaM||

    5. Do new protocols, standards, or practices championed by especially large organisations have positive effects for all or only some?

      Direct big question proposed by the report that requires future research (Q. 25) ||MariliaM||

    6. re users facing an access environment that is increasingly optimised for the delivery of services owned by a few, or for access to an open and globally-connected Internet?

      Direct big question proposed by the report that requires future research (Q. 24) ||MariliaM||

    7. may be crowding out access to a general-purpose Internet?

      Direct big question proposed by the report that requires future research (Q. 23) ||MariliaM||

    8. Does the current trend of new traffic patterns, what has been referred to as a “flattening Internet topology”, constitute a concern or an opportunity for the long-term viability of the open Internet?

      Direct big question proposed by the report that requires future research (Q. 22) ||MariliaM||

    9. To what degree is concentration, and in some instances near monopolies, on the Internet a result of particular characteristics of the service involved? Are there natural monopolies for some Internet [enabled] services, for which the most efficient number of firms is one? And if so, why?

      Direct big question proposed by the report that requires future research (Q. 21) ||MariliaM||

    10. Could our increasing reliance on just a few companies in the Internet economy make them “too big to fail”? Are there economic and technical dependencies on services that cannot be substituted that effectively create a set of permanent favourites?

      Direct big question proposed by the report that requires future research (Q. 20) ||MariliaM||

    11. How are current trends of consolidation impacting different regions, and are they exacerbating or mitigating digital divides? Is consolidation responsible for creating new digital divides, meaning that some services are offered to others and some are not?

      Direct big question proposed by the report that requires future research (Q. 19) ||MariliaM||

    12. What are the relevant indicators for assessing the impact of consolidation over time? What metrics are available, and how can the Internet community collaborate to monitor trends over time?

      Direct big question proposed by the report that requires future research (Q. 18). ||MariliaM||

    13. On the other hand, trends of concentration in the provision of many services described in this report are often accompanied by many benefits. DNS hosting or CDNs are services that will continue to benefit from economies of scale, and as long as competition persists among the large providers, it will make services like advanced DDoS mitigation more affordable and readily available to a broader range of users and content providers. In the absence of a complete market dominance, or practices leading to single points of failure (e.g., failing to use multiple DNS hosting providers), these trends could have positive effects on security and the Internet’s resilience.

      Positive consequences of concentration on security.

    14. They also reinforce an opportunity divide between developed and developing countries. Mobile app stores1 do this by imposing geographical restrictions

      Example of how concentration can affect the digital divide and development.

    15. increased dependency on well-known proprietary platforms for interoperation also imply a shift towards a qualitatively different environment than one defined by permissionless innovation, even where open standards support the interoperation.

      For e-commerce course update - chapter on business models and on IG.

    16. social login functions offered by some social media platforms enable new developers to outsource the need for developing complex systems for managing not only membership and login credentials, but also the security and legal requirements related to these.

      Could be interesting to mention in course updates. This is also advantageous for platforms, as it gives more information about user behaviour and preferences. ||GingerP||

    17. today’s dominant players, given that regulators are increasingly scrutinizing how the platforms leverage and exploit their dominance in one area to favour services in another?

      Direct question (Q.17) raised by the report. ||MariliaM||

    18. The software company Mozilla has made proposals to the U.S. Federal Trade Commission around API governance, which it calls ‘”the fundamental connective tissue of the Internet.

      To be included under competition in the e-commerce course.

    19. It is problematic that these and other measures often focus on issues in isolation, potentially failing to understand how different activities fit into the platforms’ overall business models. Some could create unintended consequences by imposing rules with which only the largest companies can comply, further strengthening a dominant position, or by undermining the open and global nature of the Internet itself.

      Link between tech aspects and policy need to be made clear to avoid unintended consequences. ||MariliaM||

    20. panel of experts to investigate and consider potential responses to digital dominance

      Take another look a the more recent results. ||MariliaM||

    21. Are there economic and technical dependencies on services that cannot be substituted that effectively create a set of permanent favourites?

      Direct question (Q.16) raised by the report.

    22. Could our increasing reliance on just a few companies in the Internet economy make them too big to fail?

      Direct question (Q.15) raised by the report. ||MariliaM||

    23. For example, the ride-hailing service, Uber, has been using Google Maps’ API to connect drivers and customers to routes and directions.46 This integration was a critical part of Uber’s success, but it meant the company’s core activity depended on access to another firm’s API.

      Good example.

    24. Will the deployment of new infrastructure support the general-purpose Internet for everyone, or could the Internet fade into the background as the evolving edge is captured by a small set of private networks and services designed for a few operators?

      Direct question (Q.14) raised by the report. Interesting question for reflection in the IG course. ||MariliaM|| ||GingerP||

    25. Does this mean that a smaller player, depending on transit and therefore subject to longer latency, will necessarily lose out?

      Direct question (Q.13) raised by the report. ||MariliaM||

    26. Will traffic in access networks be driven by large content and cloud providers feeding their localised infrastructures via private networks?

      Direct question (Q.12) raised by the report. ||MariliaM||

    27. The Internet was envisioned as a decentralised network which facilitates communication between two endpoints. However, a discussant pointed out that the landscape of network traffic is wholly different now: video streaming makes up a significant chunk of the traffic now, with Cisco estimating the 80% of the Internet Protocol traffic will be video by 2021.96 Since video hosting is dominated by a few companies such as Youtube, Netflix, and Facebook, there has been an emergence of “super-nodes” in the Internet. This has been followed by a concerted effort to be efficient at meeting such consumers’ needs, which further contributes to changing the network topology. For example, several companies employ edge caches at various Internet Service Providers (ISPs) to optimise user performance

      The changing of the network topology is a fascinating and ongoing development, which will have important economic and political implications. We need to ensure that we understand the pieces of the puzzle (what is going on) and that we update our related courses accordingly. There are several passages in this report that explain the flattening of the infrastructure (decreasing use of Tier 1, blooming of CDNs, edge computing, IXPs and concentration is these markets). I have tagged you ||GingerP|| because of the IG course. May also be of interest, ||VladaR|| ||Jovan||

    28. The evolution of edge computing is not a substitute for cloud computing in large data-centres, but rather a complement that facilitates the needs of some applications to use both types of computing resources. While some applications powered by AI need edge processing to make inferences on the device, they still rely on data models trained with the cloud’s abundant processing power and enormous amounts of data

      Complementarity between edge computing and cloud computing.

    29. Access networks and access devices — the edge of the Internet — evolve rapidly, with many and varied devices connecting to new services, potentially using specialised networks, driven in large part by the IoT. 5G cellular network standardisation and deployment are partially driven by anticipated uses that depend on bespoke access networks with much greater processing capabilities in base stations close to mobile terminals.

      Again, it would be interesting to understand what could be the interplay between this trend and data localization.

    30. n the digital networking world, we are seeing more and more data traffic go ‘dark’. Content service operators are using their own transmission systems or slicing out entire wavelengths from the physical cable plant. This withdrawal of traffic from the shared public communications platform is now not only commonplace, but the limited visibility we have into this activity suggests that even today the private network traffic vastly overwhelms the volume of traffic on the public Internet. And the growth trends in the private data realm also is far greater than growth rates in the public Internet.

      Traffic 'going dark' is an interesting way to put it. What does it mean for our capacity to detect surveillance? What does it mean for the discussion of global digital commons? In general, the Internet has always been private-led and its resources have mostly been under the control of the private sector. This means a trend towards further privatization. Another interesting reflection for the IG course ||GingerP|| and may be of interest ||Jovan|| and ||VladaR||

    31. Cisco estimates that global traffic between data centres will grow by 32.7% annually between 2016 and 2021, a higher growth rate than the traffic between data centres and the users, which is projected at 25.2%

      Interesting figure. Perhaps data localization's main impact would be to pose a barrier to free traffic between data centers. It would be interesting to find out what motivates this traffic (ex. are some data centers specializing in certain tasks, such as complex data analytics, for example, preparing for the scenario of edge computing mentioned further down )?

    32. Underpinning the trend of content and cloud providers investing in their own infrastructure is the dominance of a small set of providers in the application layer, predominantly Google, Facebook, Amazon, and Microsoft. Their services rely on a global network of interconnected data centres and servers to process and deliver content closer to the users

      Would data localization policies significantly impact these giants' operations?

    33. large content and cloud providers are investing in their own international connectivity infrastructure to serve their networks of data centres and servers across the globe.

      What is the interplay between this localization trend and governmental data localization policies?

    34. How will concentration affect the development of standard and non-standard protocols on the Internet?

      Direct question (Q.11) raised by the report. ||MariliaM||

    35. Will new protocols, standards, or practices championed by especially large organisations have positive effects for all or only some?

      Direct question (Q.10) raised by the report. ||MariliaM||

    36. the impact of a consolidating Internet economy on the development and deployment of protocols for interoperability indicates that scale is not just a source of efficiency, but also a source of power.

      The following topics could be relevant for the standards section of the IG course. It would be interesting to capture this role of dominant players in the deployment and development of standards, as well as use some concrete examples from the report. ||GingerP||

    37. Is the one-stop shop inevitable, or is there a path towards an Internet economy in which there’s a greater diversity of players that are more competitive and innovative?

      Direct question (Q.9) raised by the report. ||MariliaM||

    38. While some companies dominate their original markets such as search, e-commerce, and messaging, their increasingly diversified service offerings are overlapping and starting to compete in other markets.

      Giants leverage their dominance in some fields to diversify their services. In new fields, they may face competition with other companies, including other giants.

    39. Does the flattening of the Internet change the fundamental characteristics of the global infrastructure – and in particular those of global reach and integrity, and interoperability and mutual agreement?

      Direct question (Q.8) raised by the report. ||MariliaM||

    40. What is the benefit or impact, if any, for competition and the open and interoperable Internet when the Internet platforms secure a significant presence across the application and services layers?

      Direct question (Q.7) raised by the report. ||MariliaM||

    41. Transit is changing in ways that can reduce demand for traditional Tier 1 international transit. As IXPs are more widely used, CDN use grows and data is stored closer to users, and large platforms build their own infrastructure.

      Reflect this change in the infrastructure module of our IG course, if we have not done so. In previous sections of this ISOC publication, there are good explanations on how the infrastructure is flattening, including because of IXPs and CDNs. ||GingerP|| we had this discussion some time, ago. It could be useful to take a look and see if there is anything that could still be added to the course module.

    42. Since Google entered the marke

      Interesting development. What's the business model? ISP's paying public recursive DNS providers?

    43. As large investments are required in order to provide the full range of capabilities and resources, the IaaS and PaaS markets appear to be consolidating around the major players.

      If users in developing countries are hiring big companies to be their cloud computing providers, what's the impact of potential data localisation? Theoretically, these companies would have the resources to build processing facilities in developing countries (at least the largest ones). But: a) would that really translate into gains for developing countries (ex. create jobs, access to technology, the development of a local tech scene? b) Would smaller countries be able to enforce the same demand?; c) could data localisation be enforced on a regional basis instead to benefit from some gains of scale? ||MariliaM||

    44. With the ability to access and manage servers remotely, from anywhere on the Internet, new businesses have emerged that specialise in renting out space and processing on their servers. Today, cloud computing services dominate this arena. They use large data-centres with expertise and economies of scale, offering their specialised services globally. Customers tend to access these resources as needed instead of buying and managing servers themselves
      • Will data localisation trends affect the infrastructure of the service provision (ex. will localization of data centers have an impact on CDN deployment)?
      • How will data localisation trends affect the market of cloud computing services? (there are some empirical cases to study eg. India)
      • What is the prevailing regulatory trend in trade negotiations (global and regional, via RTAs, and national with a few case studies) when it comes to data localization? What are the political motivations for and against data localization?
      • What are the potential gains and losses that developing countries may face if they implement data localisation provisions? What are the potential unintended consequences (ex. difficulty in accessing the processing and analytical capability necessary for the national development of AI tools? ||MariliaM||
    45. DNs using private networks to distribute content internationally also helps drive down demand for transit.

      This means CDN's deploying their own infrastructure (ex. cables)?

    46. As the demand for streaming content grows around the globe, how will the networks that provide such services meet the bandwidth demands, particularly in those countries in which there are significant connectivity challenges?

      Direct question (Q.6) raised by the report. ||MariliaM||

    47. to what degree will the Internet platforms seek to gain a foothold in the access markets?

      Direct question (Q.5) raised by the report. ||MariliaM||

    48. to what degree will evolving access technologies bring the unconnected online faster?

      Direct question (Q.4) raised by the report. ||MariliaM||

    49. whether the entry of digital actors traditionally operating in other Internet domains (e.g., the app layer) might improve competition within 1 layer, while only entrenching their overall dominance cross-domain

      Direct question (Q.3) raised by the report. ||MariliaM||

    50. whether the access provision domain almost intrinsically tends to dominance due to the impact of economies of scale and other operating factors

      Direct question (Q.2) raised by the report. ||MariliaM||

    51. How will the increase in time spent online, combined with the extension of the application layer into domestic and public life (e.g., smart homes), impact the Internet and its users?

      Direct question (Q.1) raised by the report. ||MariliaM||

    52. The ability to choose

      This ability seems to be the one that is most impacted by concentration trends, followed by the ability to trust. With regards to data localization, does it impact the ability to connect?

    53. No permanent favourites

      Among the invariants, this one seems to be particularly touched by concentration trends in the Internet Economy, followed by collaboration (companies increasingly being able to make unilateral decisions). With regards to the specific trend of data localization, would it impact the "global reach and integrity"?

    54. lay out what that evolution is, what it might mean for Internet users, and what the appropriate technical and policy responses might be.

      Potential narrative of the research effort.

    55. Our analysis did not lead to a clear set of recommendations, but instead to an even longer set of questions that we think we need answers to before we have anything sensible to recommend.

      They are probably looking for research that can help them provide recommendations. ||TerezaHorejsova||

  3. Aug 2020
    1. This article is of interest because:

      • It proposes that trade norms are produced in two formats: a traditional one (legal) and an algorithm-based (and machine-readable) one, based on the use of data. This idea seems to be in tune with our own internal experiments with regards to the use of data for automation of certain processes.
      • Machine-readable rules would decrease complexity of cross-border trade for the public and the private sectors. It could particularly benefit developing country actors (decrease costs of compliance and implementation)
      • I am in touch with the author for some time, he would be an interesting guest for webinars or for an additional discussion within our digital commerce course.

      A better (more clear) explanation of his ideas can be found here: https://www.scl.org/articles/3716-from-algorithmic-law-to-automation-friendly-legislation

      ||Jovan||

    2. The OASIS-led Universal Business Language represents a free, common, library of standardised electronic business documents for digitisation of commercial/logistical processes in domestic and international supply chains

      Look into this example ||MariliaM||

    3. It’s also simple to author a rule in this form – an algorithm: it involves constructing ‘control tables’ in parallel to new and/or existing text versions of policies.

      Sounds good, but: a) it sounds daunting for policy-makers. How can they be sure that the tables reflect what has been agreed? Trade would become, necessarily, a multi-disciplinary topic (norms and programming would be intertwined). b) How would tables deal with ambiguity?

    4. express regulations in computational form so that anyone can automate their application.

      Key to understanding of what digitisation of trade is about.

    5. It has been estimated that an average customs transaction involves 30 parties, 40 documents and 200 data elements that form a ‘data supply chain’ along the value chain of any product.

      Interesting figures. It would be good to know the source.

    6. easier for governments to deliver and maintain.

      Cut in costs for developing countries.

    7. trade rules in a ‘data driven’ format can address inequalities

      As aspect of the data for development discussion. Use of data to reduce inequalities instead of enhancing them.

    8. the digitalisation of trade implies functional use of data to improve the automation potential of cross-border processes.

      Good start, with a clear definition.

    Created with Sketch. Visit annotations in context

    Created with Sketch. Tags

    Created with Sketch. Annotators

    Created with Sketch. URL

    1. 2020 has started as 2019 ended, with new cyberattacks, hacking incidents and data breaches coming to light almost every day

      Test ||djordjej||

    2. an AI-based network-monitoring tool can also track what users do on a daily basis, building up a picture of their typical behaviour

      Test @djordjej@diplomacy.edu

    Created with Sketch. Visit annotations in context

    Created with Sketch. Tags

    Created with Sketch. Annotators

    Created with Sketch. URL