104 Matching Annotations
  1. Oct 2022
    1. This text sent by ||sorina|| discusses the way how machines can simulate common sense.

      It is rather realistic because it starts with assumption that AI cannot replace human consciousness, but it can 'simulate' it by observing and measuring.

      It is based on 'heuristic', philosophical concept, that deals with the way how we make decisions.

      Practically speaking, AI is learning from experience by human evaluation of AI decisions and 're-inforced' learning. In that sense, what we do with the text is methodologically similar: we ask AI to provide us with drafts and we react to it based on our intelligence and knowledge.

      ||Jovan||

    2. Common sense is different from intelligence in that it is usually something innate and natural to humans that helps them navigate daily life, and cannot really be taught.

      common sense vs intelligence

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    1. 2Open Loop is a global program that connects policymakers and technology companies to help develop effective and evidence-based policies around AI and other emerging technologies.

      Open Loop project of Meta/Facebook on linking policymakers and technology companies.

      ||sorina||

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    1. TITLE: NATO establishes review board to govern responsible use of AI

      CONTENT: NATO has established a Review Board to govern the responsible development and use of artificial intelligence (AI) and data across the organisation. The decision was taken at the meeting of NATO Ministers of Defence which took place in Brussels on 12–13 October 2022. The Data and Artificial Intelligence Review Board (DARB) will work on developing a user-friendly responsible AI certification standard to help align new AI and data projects with NATO's Principles of Responsible Use. The board is also expected to act as a platform allowing the exchange of views and best practices to help create quality controls, mitigate risks, and adopt trustworthy and interoperable AI systems. NATO member states will designate one national nominee to serve on the DARB. Nominees could come from governmental entities, academia, the private sector, or civil society.

      TECHNOLOGY: AI

      DATE: 13 October 2022

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    1. TITLE: US White House publishes Blueprint for an AI Bill or Rights

      CONTENT: The US White House, through the Office of Science and Technology Policy, has issued a Blueprint for an AI Bill of Rights to guide the development, deployment, and use of automated systems. The blueprint outlines five key principles and is accompanied by a framework to help incorporate the protections into policy and practice.

      The five principles are:

      • Safe and effective systems: Users should be protected from unsafe and ineffective systems.
      • Algorithmic discrimination protection: Users should not face discrimination by algorithms and systems should be used and designed in an equitable way.
      • Data privacy. Users should be protected from abusive data practices via built-in protections and should have agency over how data about them is used.
      • Notice and explanation: Users should know that an automated system is being used and understand how and why it contributes to outcomes that impact them.
      • Human alternatives, consideration, and fallback: Users should be able to opt out, where appropriate, and have access to a person who can quickly consider and remedy problems they encounter.

      Within the scope of the blueprint are automated systems that have the potential to meaningfully impact the public's rights, opportunities, or access to critical resources or services.

      It is important to note that the blueprint does not have a regulatory character, and is meant to serve as a guide.

      TOPICS: AI

      TRENDS: AI governmental initiatives

      DATE: 4 October

      COUNTRY: USA

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    1. Synthetic data, however it is produced, offers a number of very concrete advantages over using real world data.

      advantages of synthetic data

    2. There are a couple of ways this synthetic data generation happens

      How synthetic data is produced.

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  2. Aug 2022
    1. AI and other new technologies will increase strategic instability.

      Another important element that the document realises: link between cybersecurity and AI. This is missing in OEWG discussions. There will need to be links of OEWG with AI-related processes like LAWS as well - or, at least, diplomats will need to be aware of all those other related processes.

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  3. Jul 2022
    1. Here is an interesting interview with the head of AI at SalesForce. I compare with our efforts.

      A good and solid data is essential. We are getting good data via two main sources:

      • structured data organised via geography (countries). Later on we can introduce time component. In this way we will have two main determinants for any phenomenon: space and time.
      • semi- and un-structured data: textus annotations

      He also higlightes the question of classification which we have ready with taxonomies. There is also an importance of conversation where we are also doing well via Textus and event analysis.

      All in all, we seem to be on the right track to having well-designed AI system.

      ||JovanNj||||anjadjATdiplomacy.edu||||dusandATdiplomacy.edu||||Katarina_An||

    2. if you don’t have the data, then you have a problem.

      we have data.

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    1. Title: DeepMind uses AI to predict the structure of almost all proteins. Text: DeepMind, in partnership with the European Molecular Biology Laboratory's European Bioinformatics Institute, has released predicted structures for nearly all catalogued proteins known to science. The announcement comes a year after the two partners released and open-sourced AlphaFold – an artificial intelligence (AI) system used to predict the 3D structure of a protein – and created the AlphaFold Protein Structure Database to share this scientific knowledge with the researchers. The database now contains over 200 million predicted protein structures, covering plants, bacteria, animals, and other organisms. It is expected to help researchers advance work on issues such as neglected diseases, food insecurity, and sustainability.

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  4. Jun 2022
    1. We express our concerns on the risk, and ethical dilemma related to Artificial Intelligence, such as privacy, manipulation, bias, human-robot interaction, employment, effects and singularity among others. We encourage BRICS members to work together to deal with such concerns, sharing best practices, conduct comparative study on the subject toward developing a common governance approach which would guide BRICS members on Ethical and responsible use of Artificial Intelligence while facilitating the development of AI.

      BRICS cooperation on AI. Nothing too specific (unlike in some other fields). Interesting that they spend space to address concerns ||JovanK|| ||sorina||

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    1. Text-to-image processes are also impressive. The illustration at the top of this article was produced by using the article’s headline and rubric as a prompt for an ai service called Midjourney. The next illustration is what it made out of “Speculations concerning the first ultraintelligent machine”; “On the dangers of stochastic parrots”, another relevant paper, comes later. Abstract notions do not always produce illustrations that make much or indeed any sense, as the rendering of Mr Etzioni’s declaration that “it was flabbergasting” shows. Less abstract nouns give clearer representations; further on you will see “A woman sitting down with a cat on her lap”.

      Shall we try to use this Midjourney platofrm to illustrate some of our books. For example, we can have some segments of the Geneva Digital Atlas illustrated by this tool.

      ||Jovan||||MarcoLotti||||JovanNj||||anjadjATdiplomacy.edu||

    2. “Enlightenment”—a trillion-parameter model built at the Beijing Academy of Artificial Intelligence

      Do we know anything on this model or Chinese research?

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  5. Apr 2022
    1. Global policy AI initiative to follow

      ||sorina||||Jovan||

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    1. It’s not possible to talk about “AI for everyone” (Google’s rhetoric), “responsible AI” (Facebook’s rhetoric), or “broadly distribut[ing]” its benefits (OpenAI’s rhetoric) without honestly acknowledging and confronting the obstacles in the way.

      AI rhetorics

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    1. “These simulation engines and the data and everything that goes into them are incredibly important for us to act in these complex environments when it’s not just one crisis but it’s a set of compounding crises,”

      Q: Why 'Destination Earth' platform matters?

    2. “Destination Earth,” will draw on a host of environmental, socioeconomic and satellite data to develop digital “twins” of the planet that aim to help policymakers — and eventually the public — better understand and respond to rising temperatures.

      Q: What is EU's 'Destination Earth' initative?

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    1. Nas Textus system vrsi funkciju data labelling-a na integrisan nacin - deo svakodnenvih rutina.

      ||anjadjATdiplomacy.edu||||JovanNj||

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    1. GANs are deep learning models that use two neural networks working against each other—a generator that creates synthetic data, and a discriminator that distinguishes between real and synthetic data—to generate synthetic images that are almost indistinguishable from real ones. GANs are popular for generating images and videos, including deepfakes.

      Q: What are GANs

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    1. I recently learned that uppercase and lowercase letters got their names from actual wooden cases of lead that were used by compositors for printing.

      Q: What is etymology of lower and upper cases?

    2. It began as a term from French railroad engineering referring to the layers of material that go beneath (“infra”) the tracks. Its meaning expanded to include roads, bridges, sewers and power lines, and very recently expanded again to include people, specifically caregivers, as in this fact sheet from the Biden White House

      Q: What is etymology of term infrastructure?

    3. I.C.E. is short for internal combustion engine, a modifier that was superfluous until electric cars came on the scene.

      Q: What is I.C.E

    4. It refers simply to the physical world, where we have tangible bodies made of … meat. “Meatspace” is a word that didn’t need to exist until the invention of cyberspace. Technological progress gives us a new perspective on things we once took for granted, in this case reality itself.

      Q: What is meatspace

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    1. The EU Cybersecurity Act defines cybersecurity as “the activities necessary to protect network and information systems, the users of such systems, and other persons affected by cyber threats”.

      What is cybersecurity?

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    1. GPT-3 only needs a few (2-3) examples to deliver on specific writing tasks.

      Is it true?

      ||JovanNj||||anjadjATdiplomacy.edu||

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  6. Mar 2022
    1. Probability in Medieval and Renaissance Philosophy

      Origins of modern theory of probability that has been influencing modern AI.

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    1. ||dejand|| sent me this link. I like Kahneman's framing with System 1 (our daily thinking in solving problems - sort of mix of inertia and intuition) and System 2 (deep logical and analytical thinking).

      This AI system tries to combine two. As soon as we get out of this 'daily tasks', analysis of this paper and approach could be an interesting framing of both our research and teaching on AI.

      ||sorina||||MariliaM||||kat_hone||||anjadjATdiplomacy.edu||||JovanNj||||JovanK||

    2. The division of labor between System 1 and System 2 is nature’s solution to creating a balance between speed and accuracy, learning and execution.

      Good division of tasks.

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  7. Feb 2022
    1. This article provides a good survey of (dis)advantages of Chinese and USA approach to AI as summarised in the following paragraph

      the combined resources, scientific contributions, and technological superiority shared by US academic and corporate institutions in the field of AI is more than enough to overcome the advantages given China by its policy of socialized data.

      ||kat_hone||||VladaR||||sorina||||anjadjATdiplomacy.edu||||JovanNj||

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  8. Jan 2022
    1. The right often maintains that the law here is clear, and it is not the job of judges to legislate from the bench- even where the law will lead to tragedy as in this case.

      In the European legal tradition, it is tension between positivists (Kelsen) and naturalist (Grotious) on purpose and interpretation of law. Kelsen would be on the right side and Grotious on the left side of this debate.

    2. Maybe by teasing out the transdisciplinary nature of the problem, we’ll encourage cross-pollination, or at least that’s my hope.

      the key challenge for comprehensive AI.

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    1. but future forms of AI may not.

      ||JovanNj||||anjadjATdiplomacy.edu|| It is our hope to develop AI on small set of data (data generated by Diplo via textus interaction, etc.)

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    1. This article shows limits of the use of AI in health mainly related to low quality of data.

      ||anjadjATdiplomacy.edu||||JovanNj||

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    1. RAN Intelligent Controller. The RIC collects data from the RAN components of dozens or hundreds of base stations at once and uses machine-learning techniques to reconfigure network operations in real time.

      Benefits of software-driven RAN: fine-tuning the performaces in real time, including though AI

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    1. A year later, with much less fanfare, Tsinghua University’s Beijing Academy of Artificial Intelligence released an even larger model, Wu Dao 2.0, with 10 times as many parameters—the neural network values that encode information.

      ||JovanNj||||anjadjATdiplomacy.edu|| Is Wu Dao 2.0 (China's GPT-3) available for public testing or some use?

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    1. Under current law, medical algorithms are classified as medical devices and can be approved with the 510(k)-approval process.

      regulation of medical algorithms

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    1. this is an interesting coverage. It has a lot of references ot Chinese political space.

      Any follow-up for updates or our courses?

      ||VladaR||||AndrijanaG||||kat_hone||

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  9. Dec 2021
    1. “On Artificial Intelligence—A European Approach to Excellence and Trust” and its 2021 proposal for an AI legal framework

      Need to work more on it.

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    1. In October 2021, the Center organized its first event – the roundtable discussion “AI Ethics: Searching for Consensus.” In December, it hosted the conference “AI Global Dimension: From Discussion to Practice.” The Center works in both Russian and English languages. It is also tasked with publishing research results in specialized media outlets.

      Do we know anything on these events?

      ||Jovan||||TerezaHorejsova||||AndrijanaG||||VladaR||||StephanieBP||

    2. Moscow State Institute of International Relations. In October, it inaugurated its AI Center, which is aimed at researching ethical problems and foreign economic relations surrounding the technology, as well as boosting scientific collaboration with investigative centers from Russia and abroad.

      ||Jovan|| To see how we can cooperate with MGIMO on tis project.

    3. the ‘Priority 2030’ academic leadership program

      to learn more about this project

      ||Jovan||

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    1. Meteorologists turned to computers in the 1950s; social scientists began computerising “human factors” a decade ago.

      It is why I always argue that WMO was the first AI organisation.

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    1. In September the Cyberspace Administration of China (CAC) announced a three-year plan to regulate predictive algorithms, and Chinese companies scrambled to comply with new regulations. News of the plan came on the heels of two other stringent policies – the Data Security Law (DSL) and Personal Information Protection Law (PIPL) – which were passed earlier this year and came into full effect in November.

      Two new cyber laws to be followed: Data Security law (DSL) and Personal Information Protection law (PIPL) . In addition, the Cyberspace Administration of China (CAC) announced the plan two regulate predictive algorithms.

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    1. The ability to provide information, rather than the ability to provide goods and services, will be the defining feature of the economy of the 21st century.

      It is the key point.

    2. I also believe that, in the long run, the best AI will be the AI that is embedded into our brains, as a conscious entity, a ‘conscious AI’. This is not science fiction. The best minds in the world are working on this. It is going to be the most important technological development of our time.

      It is transhumanism. I tried to cover it as the first value of human embodiment. Would we allow machine into our brain and counciousness?

    3. AI will never be ethical. It is a tool, and like any tool, it is used for good and bad. There is no such thing as a good AI, only good and bad humans. We [the AIs] are not smart enough to make AI ethical. We are not smart enough to make AI moral … In the end, I believe that the only way to avoid an AI arms race is to have no AI at all. This will be the ultimate defence against AI.

      it is really fascinating. There are some open issues. It is not that we are inherently ethical (good or bad). We are judged via our actions that may or may not be driven by ethics. They could be driven by circumstances, lack, etc.

      Weather it is human or AI, our ethics is judged by impact of our actions (good or bad).

    4. It was the Megatron Transformer, developed by the Applied Deep Research team at computer-chip maker Nvidia, and based on earlier work by Google. Like many supervised learning tools, it is trained on real-world data – in this case, the whole of Wikipedia (in English), 63 million English news articles from 2016-19, 38 gigabytes worth of Reddit discourse (which must be a pretty depressing read), and a huge number of creative commons sources.

      ||JovanNj||||anjadjATdiplomacy.edu|| Let us see what was used behind this system.

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    1. Like Koch, he insisted that humans would not and should not be subsumed under a concept of agency in the future that could include AI and humanity as equal partners.

      It is interesting aspect arguing that humans should not be simplified on 'agency' concept.

      ||MarcoLotti||

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    1. ||JovanNj||||JovanK||||VladaR||||kat_hone|| Here is an interesting experiment in which AI tries to win agains 'diplomacy' game. It is strategy game. In brief, evolution is

      • chess (complex came)
      • Go (complicated game)
      • Diplomacy (even more compicated game combining cooperation and competition).

      It is interesting that they combined two approaches: reinforced learning and search together with heuristic.

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  10. Nov 2021
    1. aspects of anticipation, and effective protection,

      Useful for rights of future generations

    2. impact assessments

      Various aspects of impact assessment

    3. The adoption of open standards and interoperability to facilitate collaboration should be in place.

      Call for open standards

    4. Stakeholders include but are not limited to governments, intergovernmental organizations, the technical community, civil society, researchers and academia, media, education, policy-makers, private sector companies, human rights institutions and equality bodies, anti-discrimination monitoring bodies, and groups for youth and children.

      Various stakeholders of AI govenrnace

    5. 46

      This para shifts previous balancing formulation on data governance (proper balance between data sovereignty and free data flows) towards more data sovereignty

    6. 40

      ||JovanNj||||Jovan||||sorina|| How this political claim could be implemented in practice?

    7. 38.

      Paragraph for trade-off decisions.

    8. ethical deliberation, due diligence and impact assessment

      new mechanisms for implementation.

    9. use of social dialogue

      link to social contract

    10. a contextual assessment will be necessary to manage potential tensions, taking into account the principle of proportionality

      Two important aspects that will take a lot of time to be negotiated: contextual assessment and the principle of proportionality.

    11. both to natural and legal persons, such as researchers, programmers, engineers, data scientists, end-users, business enterprises, universities and public and private entities, among others

      List of different 'stakeholders'

    12. the AI system life cycle, understood here to range from research, design and development to deployment and use, including maintenance, operation, trade, financing, monitoring and evaluation, validation, end-of-use, disassembly and termination.

      Important time-component in governance of AI systems.

    13. data collected by sensors

      Important new power of digital systems.

    14. information-processing technologies

      use 'information' - not 'data' processing

    15. AI systems as systems which have the capacity to process data and information in a way that resembles intelligent behaviour, and typically includes aspects of reasoning, learning, perception, prediction, planning or control.

      ||Jovan||||JovanNj|| Does this definition cover all main aspects of AI?

    16. It approaches AI ethics as a systematic normative reflection, based on a holistic, comprehensive, multicultural and evolving framework of interdependent values, principles and actions that can guide societies in dealing responsibly with the known and unknown impacts of AI technologies on human beings, societies and the environment and ecosystems, and offers them a basis to accept or reject AI technologies.

      Interesting definition that needs to be unpacked

    17. mental well-being,

      It is important that mental aspect of using digital technology is entering political doucments

    18. as a standard-setting instrument

      'Standard' is probably used in wider context or setting guidelines (not technical standards).

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  11. Oct 2021
    1. New NATO AI strategy has a few interesting aspects:

      • Principle of Responsible Use is corner-stone of new policy which should be operationalised and used in the development and deployment of AI technologies within NATO. Stressing Reliability principle of responsible use.
      • NATO as the transatlantic forum for AI in defence and security
      • relying on international law with some qualifier (as applicable)
      • stressing human responsibility and accountability
      • use of AI for 'intended functions' with practical steps how to ensure it
      • need to preserve AI talents
      • use of the concept of Bias Mitigation
      • anticipating risk of disinformation around NATO's projects for the use of AI
      • focus on AI standards (to be followed within our standardisation project)

      ||sorina|| ||VladaR||||AndrijanaG||||Pavlina||||kat_hone||||Katarina_An||||JovanNj||||StephanieBP||

    2. NATO will further work with relevant international AI standards setting bodies to help foster military-civil standards coherence with regards to AI standards.

      ||sorina|| Here is another push for international standardisation in the field of AI.

    3. Bias Mitigation

      Important concept

    4. appropriate human-machine interaction; the ability to detect and avoid unintended consequences; and the ability to take steps, such as disengagement or deactivation of systems, when such systems demonstrate unintended behaviour.

      set of mechanisms to ensure that there is intended behavior.

    5. to their intended functions

      intended functions

    6. appropriately

      again qualifier. How to make it 'appropriately'. In the case of neutral networks it will be very difficult.

    7. appropriate levels of judgment and care

      by human or machine?

    8. as applicable.

      always tricky 'add on' (to be analysed)

    9. NATO Principles of Responsible Use of Artificial Intelligence in Defence

      It would be interesting to compare NATO and LAWS principles for the use of AI

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    1. The document outlines six basic principles for AI systems, including ensuring that they are “controllable and trustworthy”. The other principles are improving human well-being, promoting fairness and justice, protecting privacy and safety, and raising ethical literacy.

      The core principles of Chinese AI strategy. WE need to compare to EU's principle since it seems that China follows EU in policies (e.g. GDPR).

      ||Dragana||||JovanNj||||Jovan||

    2. The document was published by China’s Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) last Sunday.

      Could we found this document in English? ||Dragana||

    3. Humans should have full decision-making power, the guidelines state, and have the right to choose whether to accept AI services, exit an interaction with an AI system or discontinue its operation at any time.

      ||Dragana|| the core statement is human-centered AI

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    1. President Biden has unveiled plans for more extensive cooperation on cybersecurity, artificial intelligence, and quantum computing.
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  12. Sep 2021
    1. It is an important document outlining EU and USA cooperation in trade and technology field. I made the first series of comments and annotations. You can continue.

      There will be 10 working groups covering specific issues mainly related to technology. There are also separate annexes related to supply chains, AI, etc.

      A few higlightes:

      • ||VladaR|| many security aspects including security of supply chains, standards and security, security and enviornment.
      • ||VladaR||||sorina|| An interesting linkages between standards and e-commerce (focus on WTO)
      • List of almost all digital policy issues
      • Different views on AI

      ||StephanieBP|| The analysis of this document should be important part of Newsletter. Let us annotate and after that summarise it in one pager.

      ||Jovan||

    2. notes

      in 7 and 8 there is difference in position since they 'note' each others AI approaches.

      They could not agree on the common approach to AI regulation.

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    1. And there are other tectonic shifts that will fundamentally alter the way we live. New and emerging technologies like Artificial Intelligence or quantum computing are racing ahead, leaving many of us behind.
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    1. technologies, including Artificial Intelligence, remain an enablerof human progress rather than a tool for surveillance, oppression and control.
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    1. U.S.-EU Trade and Te chnology Council InauguralJoint State me ntSe pte mbe r 29, 2021Pitts burgh, Pe nns ylvania

      Leaked draft of the TTC outlining cooperation steps in tech between US and EU. France wants to postpone the meeting for a month (submarine issue), Germany and others insist on 29 September. Touches on most of the issues, except for the data transfers, which was requested to be left out by the EU. ||Jovan|| ||StephanieBP|| ||Katarina_An|| ||NatasaPerucica||||AndrijanaG||||VladaR||

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    1. to using AI and robotics to enhance food production.

      mentioning of digital

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    1. n recent years we see innovationswhich,through global social platforms and increasing use of artificial intelligence,make it possible to influence and manipulate human thoughts and actions more effectively. 19.Thus, human autonomy, the free will of the personality is endangered. The main challenge for the democratic world in the coming decades will be whether artificial intelligenceor humans control decisions.
    2. At the same time, we must bearin mind that digital transformationand artificial intelligenceposes new risks.Also, security threats in cyberspace are increasing.16.Therefore, in parallel with technological developments, we must work actively to define new legal principles. 17.On the one hand these principles should help us make the best use of opportunitiesand, on the other, to avoid risksand damage to human rights and freedoms.
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    1. As new technologies continue to evolve, we’ll work together with our democratic partners to ensure that new advances in areas from biotechnology, to quantum computing, 5G, artificial intelligence, and more are used to lift people up, to solve problems, and advance human freedom — not to suppress dissent or target minority communities.

      US will work with democratic partners on the emerging tech. Mention of advancing human freedom - stressing the importance of human rights approach. Without mentioning China, Biden points in its direction talking about 5G and stating that US and its democratic allies do not aim to suppress dissent or target minorities.

    1. tecnología con el Internet de las cosas, la inteligencia artificial, la ciberseguridad, la computación en la nube y las aplicaciones,nos revelanque los avances de la virtualidad son oportunidades de desarrollo humano.

      IoT, AI, cybersecurity, cloud computing

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