30 Matching Annotations
  1. Jan 2021
    1. China has more of a unitary system in which policy is set in Beijing for the entire country.

      It is not entiry correct. China has been experimenting a lot with local policy developments especially with new technologies. They used to start with policy experiment (data, security) in areas like Szhensen and extend gradually to the rest of the country.

      There is more local dynamics in China than it looks from outside. It is expected for the country with 1.5 billion people. The risk of decentralisation remains the main concern of Chinese political elite given frustrating experience from most of 19th and 20th century (e.g. Opium war, etc.). Thus, they attempt to centralise control. But, the reality is quite different.

    Created with Sketch. Visit annotations in context

    Created with Sketch. Tags

    Created with Sketch. Annotators

    Created with Sketch. URL

  2. Dec 2020
    1. it has pursued a parallel, China-centered track that involves promoting “mutual recognition” of standards at the bilateral level with a large number of countries and is increasingly coordinating standardization within the context of its Belt and Road Initiative

      China's bilateral strategy, complementary to its activity in SDOs. Leveraging the BRI. ||MariliaM||

    Created with Sketch. Visit annotations in context

    Created with Sketch. Tags

    Created with Sketch. Annotators

    Created with Sketch. URL

    1. For example, Chinese-led technical committees or subcommittees in the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), one of the largest international standards-setting organizations (SSOs), increased 75 percent from 2011 to 2019.

      Interesting figure

    Created with Sketch. Visit annotations in context

    Created with Sketch. Tags

    Created with Sketch. Annotators

    Created with Sketch. URL

    1. The government leaders or ministers who meet as the T-12 would also have a unique opportunity to enlist the private sector and international organizations in their work. Annual meetings could serve as an arena for business leaders to join government officials in coordinating responses to emerging issues such as the need to improve remote-learning technology in response to the COVID-19 pandemic and what the future of counterterrorism might look like. The format for these meetings could include issue-based sessions, in which governments invite leading private-sector figures for focused discussions, or standing forums akin to the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation’s Business Advisory Council, which provides advice to Pacific Rim leaders on concerns facing businesses throughout the region. The T-12 could also develop working groups and committees on the multistakeholder model, which brings together representatives from business, civil society, government, and research institutions. These groups would then pass recommendations up to ministers and principals. Simultaneously, leaders could collaborate with other multilateral organizations—working with NATO on AI security, for instance, or with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development on the industrial implications of disruptive technologies. 

      Suggestions of governance mechanisms for a T-12. ||Jovan||

    Created with Sketch. Visit annotations in context

    Created with Sketch. Tags

    Created with Sketch. Annotators

    Created with Sketch. URL

    1. “First, China will make its own domestic standards into international standards, then it will export complete Chinese systems that meet” those specifications

      Standards as a way to gain market competition

    Created with Sketch. Visit annotations in context

    Created with Sketch. Tags

    Created with Sketch. Annotators

    Created with Sketch. URL

    1. Mr Biden has said he would “build a united front of friends and partners to challenge China’s abusive behaviour” in stealing “technology and intellectual property”; confront its “high-tech authoritarianism”; and build a safe 5G infrastructure and the “rules, norms and institutions” to govern the global use of new technologies

      Stance taken by Biden before being elected.

    Created with Sketch. Visit annotations in context

    Created with Sketch. Tags

    Created with Sketch. Annotators

    Created with Sketch. URL

    1. One idea that is gaining traction is for the United States to initiate an alliance of democracies to combat China’s technological expansion and check the spread of digital autocratic norms. Specifically, many experts are proposing the creation of “Technology 10” or “T-12” groupings to counter China’s digital ambitions, safeguard the West’s technological leadership, and allow liberal democracies to shape emerging technologies

      Interesting development if it gains traction. The Technology 10 was mentioned in this FT article: https://www.ft.com/content/bc7abf86-f13e-4025-a120-004361aef21a It is inspired by UK's idea of a "Democracy 10" Alliance in the field of 5G. ||Jovan||

    Created with Sketch. Visit annotations in context

    Created with Sketch. Tags

    Created with Sketch. Annotators

    Created with Sketch. URL

  3. Nov 2020
    1. This text has a few major characteristics:

      • clarity of language; sometimes wrong information;
      • how to contain China's tech strength; accept that it cannot change China and countries around China's influence; but start counter-initiative to contain further spread of China's tech influence.
      • create digital trade zone of like-minded countries
      • call to weaponize the USA digital power and dependence on the USA digital economy.
      • USA needs to develop a competing vision (move beyond current passive approach of opposing - for example - Huawei)
      • test to see if foreign tech companies can be trused (Kaspersky and Huawei did not pass this test).
      • not clear interplay between free flow of data and encryption.

      ||Jovan||||VladaR||||AndrijanaG||||StephanieBP||||MariliaM||||NatasaPerucica||||Katarina_An||||kat_hone||||TerezaHorejsova||||Pavlina||

    Created with Sketch. Visit annotations in context

    Created with Sketch. Tags

    Created with Sketch. Annotators

    Created with Sketch. URL

    1. Summary of document

      • the main aim of a Technology Alliance is to counter fast tech growth of China; document contains detailed analysis of China's policies and approaches.
      • it focuses on supply chains (||VladaR||: potentially relevant for Geneva Dialogue; multilateral export control; new investement mechanisms ( ||TerezaHorejsova|| for various Geneva initiatives); standards (for Geneva-project).
      • Technology Alliance has a strong value-basis: promotion of democracy, the rule of law and respect for human rights.
      • 10 members are 'in'; others are considered; major dilemma is how to bring India in the Alliance.
      • risk of China taking western technologies via a few weak points: informal scientific/academic cooperation (||kat_hone|| this could be a reason for growing focus on new science diplomacy; Taiwan's semi-conductor industry which is easily accessed by Chinese tech companies and researchers.
      • how to define critical technologies among members of Alliance?
      • high relevance of digital standards, mentioning Geneva's organisation, and suggesting practical steps (e.g. funding delegations for standardisation bodies).
      • growing importance of open source solution + decoupling hardware from software as a way to counter-balance Huawei's lead in the field of 5G.

      ||NatasaPerucica||||StephanieBP||||Katarina_An||||AndrijanaG||

    2. mobilizes national champions, influences international standards, develops information and communication technology (ICT)infrastructure worldwide through the Digital Silk Road, and exports surveillance technology.

      Actions of China

    3. Beijing often threatens to weaponize economic interdependence,3such as an 80.5percentanti-dumping tariff on Australian barley in response to Canberra’s call for an investigation into the coronavirus outbreakandputting Germany’s car industry in the crosshairs if Berlin excludes Chinese telecommunications equipment manufacturer Huawei fromGerman 5G networks.4

      Here are a few example how China used interdependence as source of power.

      ||Jovan||

    1. This is one of the worst articles I have read recently in terms of:

      • defeating interests it wants to protect
      • logical consistency
      • backing claims

      Substantively speaking, China is very active in standardisaiton field. They entered into space openned by Western arguments - for too long - that standards are technical issues without political and other perspectives. Chinese accepted this rule of the game and started sending legions of highly-qualified engineers in standardisation. They prepare proposals. Obviously, they advance their interests and views. They do in transparent and 'scientific' manner by presenting proposal and facts.

      Now, there is - to the large - extend justified concern that standardisation bodies can be hijecked in this way. This article is along these lines 'Chinese are coming into standardisation'. It follows current approach of fear-mongering in the Western academic and policy circles.

      It is very risky approach because it won't stop Chinese influence while it can easily undermine core Western values. Tactical moves could be turned into strategic defeat.

      For Western societies there are three possibilities:

      • to compete with Chinese via expertise, coordinated approach and better proposals (justified with expeeritse)

      • to change the rules of the game with the clear possibility that new rules of the game will be masted by Chinese (and others)

      • to decide to have different games (split digital space in different realms).

      ||Jovan||

    Created with Sketch. Visit annotations in context

    Created with Sketch. Tags

    Created with Sketch. Annotators

    Created with Sketch. URL

    1. The reversal marks the biggest setback for China’s private-sector entrepreneurs since Mr Xi took power in 2012.

      Probably historical shift in relation between Chinese government and companies

    Created with Sketch. Visit annotations in context

    Created with Sketch. Tags

    Created with Sketch. Annotators

    Created with Sketch. URL

  4. Oct 2020
    1. Balanced coverage of China and standardisation with a few highlights:

      • China is late arrival to the international standardisation scene dominated by USA, Europe and Japan
      • in 2015 China made official decision to reduce this gap (||Jovan||||TerezaHorejsova||||NatasaPerucica||||Katarina_An||
    Created with Sketch. Visit annotations in context

    Created with Sketch. Tags

    Created with Sketch. Annotators

    Created with Sketch. URL

    1. However, a reportby the United KingdomIntelligence and Security Committee titled Foreign Involvement in the Critical National Infrastructure; The implications for national securityobserved that “[a]ny policy which seeks to block all Chinese companies from any future contracts relating to [Critical National Infrastructure] projects is not only impractical but, crucially, given the predominance of Chinese-manufactured and -developed equipment, is unlikely to result in the national security protection envisaged.

      Interesting conclusion.

    Created with Sketch. Visit annotations in context

    Created with Sketch. Tags

    Created with Sketch. Annotators

    Created with Sketch. URL

  5. Sep 2020
    1. "As part of this proposal, Oracle will become our trusted technology provider, responsible for hosting all US user data and securing associated computer systems to ensure US national security requirements are fully satisfied," TikTok said. "We are currently working with Wal-Mart on a commercial partnership as well. Both companies will take part in a TikTok Global pre-IPO financing round in which they can take up to a 20% cumulative stake in the company. We will also maintain and expand TikTok Global's headquarters in the US, while bringing 25,000 jobs across the country."

      Summary of TikTok deal

    Created with Sketch. Visit annotations in context

    Created with Sketch. Tags

    Created with Sketch. Annotators

    Created with Sketch. URL

    1. It's been reported that China would rather TikTok be closed down than be forced to sell to the US.

      It is interesting that China introduced new law blocking this type of acquistions.

    Created with Sketch. Visit annotations in context

    Created with Sketch. Tags

    Created with Sketch. Annotators

    Created with Sketch. URL

    1. a negotiating partner, an economic competitor and a systemic rival.

      Very rich yet succinct statement about EU-China relations. It would be interesting to unpack what each of these elements mean. ||Jovan|| ||VladaR||

    Created with Sketch. Visit annotations in context

    Created with Sketch. Tags

    Created with Sketch. Annotators

    Created with Sketch. URL

  6. Aug 2020
    1. The following day, the Senate passed a bill banning TikTok from government-issued phones, and Trump signed executive orders stating that TikTok would be barred from operating in the United States in forty-five days unless it was sold to an American buyer.

      two actions against TikTok by the US Senate and the President.

    Created with Sketch. Visit annotations in context

    Created with Sketch. Tags

    Created with Sketch. Annotators

    Created with Sketch. URL

    1. Text provides first-hand experience on China during COVID crisis from the perspective of American professor teaching at the Chinese university. China, unlike the USA, dealt smartly on the crisis and 'delivered' on social contract with citizens by providing health security. Text highlights the following points on China and COVID-19:

      • Functional institutions from local to national level and leadership are essential for dealing with pandemics.
      • Trust in science, nurtured by Chinese education, helped trust in medical profession and government.
      • Digital tracing failed in China due to push back by tech companies concern for data protection. It was surprising news because Chinese tech companies are often portrayed as extension of government. Without tech solutions, China reverted to contact tracing by local communities building on old Confucian tradition which Communist Party built on. Local Communist organisations organised effective lock-down.
      • China's pandemic policy reflected their economic and social policies. Namely, they created space for economic self-help by companies and people. Unlike most of Western governments, they did not provide direct financial assistance. In a way, they were less 'socialist' than Western governments. While economically liberal, China has been very strict by imposing strict and sometimes drastic measures on citizens and society for the control of spread of virus.
      • The successful dealing with pandemics increased trust in government in China, including among those who have had anti-government views. Government 'delivered' on their part of social contract by providing people with security.
      • After pandemics, Chinese youth is more optimistic about the future than young people in other countries and regions.

      The article brings some contradictions which are worth further research. For example, it argues that Chinese could have buffered pandemic due to their personal savings. It is well-know that the less people trust their government the higher their personal savings are. How to reconcile high trust in government and high savings as sign of lack of trust. In the same time, in the USA personal savings are very low due to - among other factors - high trust in government. With trusted government 'rainy days' are not expected. Are we in the 'trust transition' in opposite directions in both China and USA. hardship due to developments. This contradicting requires better explanations.

      Author made some parallels with the USA failed response to COVID-19. Functional institutions and leadership are behind difference between USA and China. China has had strong institutions and effective leadership. USA missed both.

      ||Dragana|| ||Maja|| Maja, the above listed comments were made after reading this article suggested by Aldo. Additional comments are available further down in the text.

      ||JovanNj||||NatasaPerucica||||Katarina_An||||kat_hone|| Is there any economic theory or statistics that co-relate level of trust and level of personal savings. Is there data of savings per country?

    Created with Sketch. Visit annotations in context

    Created with Sketch. Tags

    Created with Sketch. Annotators

    Created with Sketch. URL

    1. breaking up Big Tech would open the way for Chinese dominance and thereby undermine U.S. national security.

      China card of tech companies

    Created with Sketch. Visit annotations in context

    Created with Sketch. Tags

    Created with Sketch. Annotators

    Created with Sketch. URL

  7. Jul 2020
    1. Ambassador O’Brien spoke about ideology. FBI Director Wray talked about espionage. Attorney General Barr spoke about economics. And now my goal today is to put it all together for the American people and detail what the China threat means for our economy, for our liberty, and indeed for the future of free democracies around the world.

      Here is focus of each of these speeches

    2. My remarks today are the fourth set of remarks in a series of China speeches that I asked National Security Advisor Robert O’Brien, FBI Director Chris Wray, and the Attorney General Barr to deliver alongside me.

      Can wee collect this series of speeches.

    Created with Sketch. Visit annotations in context

    Created with Sketch. Tags

    Created with Sketch. Annotators

    Created with Sketch. URL

    1. An interesting coverage with anti-China tilt but realistic summary of the situation. It clearly shows that the next digital between China and USA will be happening in Europe and 'swing countries' (India, Indonesia, etc.). It will be interesting to monitor situation in Africa and Latin America. One of the main indicators will be:

      • number of Huawei contracts
      • use of Chinese apps such as TikTok
      • penetration of Alibaba e-commerce business
    2. India, meanwhile, had been going back and forth over whether to include Huawei equipment in the country's 5G network, said Chaitanya Giri, an analyst with Indian foreign policy think tank Gateway House. Huawei received the green light to participate in 5G trials late last year.

      China and India in digital diplomacy.

    Created with Sketch. Visit annotations in context

    Created with Sketch. Tags

    Created with Sketch. Annotators

    Created with Sketch. URL

  8. Jun 2020
  9. May 2020
    1. To prevent foreign malign actors from gaining access to United States information networks, the President issued the “Executive Order on Securing the Information and Communications Technology and Services Supply Chain” and the “Executive Order on Establishing the Committee for the Assessment of Foreign Participation in the United States Telecommunications Services Sector.” The implementation of these Executive Orders will prevent certain companies associated with or answering to the intelligence and security apparatus of foreign adversaries from, for example, readily accessing the private and sensitive information of the United States Government, the United States private sector, and

      Need to analyse two important documents of the USA tech diplomacy and policy.

      documents

    2. The PRC’s attempts to dominate the global information and communications technology industry through unfair practices is reflected in discriminatory regulations like the PRC National Cyber Security Law, which requires companies to comply with Chinese data localization measures that enable CCP access to foreign data. Other PRC laws compel companies like Huawei and ZTE to cooperate with Chinese security services, even when they do business abroad, creating security vulnerabilities for foreign countries and enterprises utilizing Chinese vendors’ equipment and services.

      Technological aspect of China-USA relations.

    3. the Department of Defense June 2019 Indo-Pacific Strategy Report and the Department of State November 2019 report on A Free and Open Indo-Pacific: Advancing a Shared Vision.

      USA policy towards China is based on Indo-Pacific approach. It is similar to Kennan's containment's approach towards Soviet Union (telegram X).

      ||TerezaHorejsova||

    4. It is landmark study that will shape China-USA relations beyond Trump's administration. It marks the end of 'engagement' approach of the USA towards China and shift to the approach of 'principled realism'. USA plans to continue with open, constructive, results-oriented engagement with China. ||VladaR||||TerezaHorejsova||||NatasaPerucica||||Katarina_An||

    Created with Sketch. Visit annotations in context

    Created with Sketch. Tags

    Created with Sketch. Annotators

    Created with Sketch. URL