1. Last 7 days
    1. The Prehistoric Period—or when there was human life before records documented human activity—roughly dates from 2.5 million years ago to 1,200 B.C.

      timing of prehistoric age

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    1. employment law distinguishes between three types of people: those employed under a contract of employment; those self-employed people who are in business on their own account and undertake work for their clients or customers; and an intermediate class of workers who are self-employed but who provide their services as part of a profession or business undertaking carried on by someone else. Some statutory rights, such as the right not to be unfairly dismissed, are limited to those employed under a contract of employment; but other rights, including those claimed in these proceedings, apply to all “workers”

      In the UK, there are three types of people:

      • those in normal employment (workers within the meaning of 230(3)(a) of Employment Rights Act)
      • self-employment (not workers)
      • somewhere in between: self-employed but who provide their services to another party, under contract, express or implied. The court calls this a 'worker's contract'.

      Court is saying that:

      (a) Uber drivers fall within this third category, regardless of what their contract says (Parliament intends the law to protect people regardless of contracts).

      (b) Why do Uber fall within this third cat? There are 5 reasons:

      • price is fixed by Uber
      • contractual terms dictated by Uber
      • Uber has control over driver’s acceptance to drive people
      • Uber has control over the way drivers deliver their services
      • Drivers cannot communicate with customers

      (c) SOME rights apply to the third category too, as they fall within the meaning of Section 230(3)(b). These rights include the ones claimed in this case (minimum wage and annual leave).

    2. Laws such as the National Minimum Wage Act were manifestly enacted to protect those whom Parliament considers to be in need of protection and not just those who are designated by their employer as qualifying for it

      Another reason why workers rights are determined by statute regardless of contracts

    3. Critical

      Court is saying, in determining which rights workers have, it's not a matter of what the contract says, but what the law provides, regardless of contracts

    4. rights claimed by the claimants

      Claimants asked for:

      • right to a minimum wage;
      • right to paid annual leave;
      • right to protection for whistleblowing
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    1. This could include helping earners pay contributions to public safety nets or go as far as an industry-funded portable benefits fund, allowing platform workers to accrue access to cash payouts to spend on the benefits and protections they want

      This is what Uber is proposing. Essentially, its giving drivers extra cash to spend it on benefits/social protections, rather than Uber covering (partial) costs themselves

    2. additional benefits and protections

      Additional to what? So far, Uber has only talked about insurance, which in itself is questionable. In traditional employment, it is the employer who covers the costs; here, drivers would need to deal with the insurance company, and possibly its bureaucracy

    3. Instead, social protection systems for platform workers should provide adequate benefits and protections, while maintaining the advantages of flexibility

      The question is, what would these adequate benefits and protections comprise of?

    4. But pushing people towards traditional employment models is not the answer. Employment relationships are intentionally rigid, designed to match the number of employees on a payroll with the size of a business. Uber’s business model, on the flip side, reflects constantly fluctuating demand. A push towards employment would mean platforms like Uber would have to restrict the flexibility that is so valued by drivers and couriers today

      This is the key paragraph. Uber is saying:

      1. No, traditional employment is not compatible with the fluctuations in demand for Uber services. (They make a good point; it would be hard to contest this.)
      2. If we were to offer normal employment, we would have to restrict the flexibility. (Fair enough)
    5. hey also had higher levels of anxiety,

      What Uber is saying: True, drivers do have more anxiety, but this is normal for people who work on their own.

    6. 2. Platform work should also offer reliable social protections

      This is the key part. Let's see...

    7. Uber provides true ‘two-way flexibility’,

      How is that? The only way it is two-way is if the driver or courier is guaranteed a minimum amount of hours

    8. f, when, where, for whom and for how long they work

      The meaning of flexibility

    9. new industry standards for platform work, while ensuring it is recognised and valued at a legislative level

      Would these be self- or co-regulations? What Uber is proposing falls short of hard laws, it seems

    10. will not be straightforward.

      Uber gives two reasons for this complexity:

      1. In the EU, it's not just the national governments, but also the EU, whom Uber needs to negotiate with, due to shared competency;
      2. There are conflicting judgments, such as those by French courts
    11. fare, distance and destination before they accept a trip

      Often underestimated. We need to recognise that Uber did invest money on this aspect which benefits mainly the drivers/couriers

    12. broad set of reliable social protections and benefits

      So Uber does agree that drivers/couriers need to be given social protections and benefits

    13. independent work should also provide additional benefits and protections - more traditionally associated with employmen

      So far, this sounds good. It is along the lines of the UK judgment... so far. But let's read on

    14. drivers1 and couriers2

      Important to mention couriers too. We tend to focus only on drivers, but couriers are also part of the picture since they work for Uber Eats

    15. Flexibility

      This is the selling point for working with Uber, and in reality, its not a bad deal for those who need this kind of work-when-you-want arrangement

    16. while providing assistance to those unable to work due to COVID-19

      Thank goodness for Uber

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    1. In the early 1900s, a Swiss linguistics professor named Ferdinand de Saussure died, and in the process, almost deprived the world of the concept of “Language as a Science.” From 1906 to 1911, Professor Saussure offered three courses at the University of Geneva, where he developed an approach describing languages as “systems.” Within the language, a sound represents a concept – a concept that shifts meaning as the context changes.

      Saussure and structural linguistics

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    1. Our next stop is the prehistoric world, much different from the world we know today. Yet, today's social patterns were set a long time ago. The emergence of social organisations, such as clans and tribes, led to the interaction between these groups in both wartime and peacetime (conflicts and cooperation). The first negotiations and search for compromise appeared in this period.

      ||minam||||MilicaVK||!||Maja||

      Ovde mozemo dodait kontekst na siri journey. Mozda jedna uvodna recenica sa linkom na glavnu stranu...

      In January we started our journey on technology and diplomacy. Our next step....

    2. In our introductory January session, we set the course for our journey by explaining the routes that we plan to explore, the stops that we will be making on the way, and the people that we will meet during the journey. 

      ||Maja|| ||minam||

      Da li mozete da editujete ovaj prvi paragraf da bude vise engaging jer to ljudi vide kada dodju na stranicu. Pored toga treba napraviti link na glavnu stranicu. Nesto ovako:

      Join us on Thursday for discussing when diplomacy started, how did our ancestors solve conflicts, were they more prone towards conflict or cooperation as Prof. de Waal argues in the podcast bellow.

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    1. If the contemporary flood of advice writing teaches us anything, it might be that we’ve learned, somewhere along the way, to stop asking for big, absurd, revelatory things—we’ll settle for something small, something now, something that can patch the wound until tomorrow. We’ll settle for electability, for hand sanitizer, for something less than violence in the streets.

      Search for 'small advise' - not big revelations

      ||Jovan||

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    1. This article questions one of corner stones of Hobbesian political science and international relations. Namely, this corner stone often quotes early humansas aggressive and conflict-prone. They quote hunter societies. But this article and interview of Frans de Waal shows opposite. Humans are equally prone for cooperation and conflicts. It is not their nature but social and cultural context that creates basis for conflict of cooperation. It is also my personal experience form former Yugoslavia. The same people who were 'brothers' turns into enemies as political and social framework changed. It was not about their 'nature' but social context.

      ||minam||

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    1. Jared Diamond's book The World Until Yesterday

      Useful resource. I will consult it.

      ||minam||

    2. My answer was influenced by David Graeber's book "Debt: The Last 5000 Years", and others like Kropotkin's "Mutual Aid"

      For resoruce page

      ||minam||

    3. Exchange of gifts (e.g trinkets, livestock)- Tribal elders meeting and engaging in rituals (religious or hierarchical)- Exchanging of hostages/slaves, or more rarely intermarrying- understandings/disputes focusing around hunting rights, water sources, etc

      Main types of exchanges

    4. Aboriginal diplomacy before and after western contacts would be very interesting to me. contacts with tribes in the Amazon give ideas of hunter-gatherer diplomacy.

      Interesting to include

      ||minam||

    5. The earliest state I know of is Egypt potentially founded by the Scorpion King. Chinese culture is begun around the same time, as well as the Harappans in India, and the Sumerians around the Tigris and Euphrates.

      to consider these parallel processes

    6. That's diplomacy based on emotion. adoration and idolisaton. I think the rationalization followed that. Real bureaucracy and thus diplomacy didn't really exist until the written word existed for trade and defensive pacts between kingdoms. You may have had some verbal agreements before that but likely it was always the kings or leaders who met, knowing that any breach of trust must have come from them, as a middle man could have lied, been blackmailed or saw an opportunity to influence events. Once the written word and the seal exists, you can do work on behalf of the leader and easier send commands and shape a kingdom.

      good point.

    7. Tristes Tropiques, Claude Lévi-Strauss mentions a tribe preparing and transporting gifts to another tribe.

      to add to resources and find some basic elements

      ||minam||

    8. The Moors, in Cordoba and Grenada,

      Good to include Moors in summary

      ||minam||

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    1. The Creation of Writing: Interview with Dr. Jennifer Ross

      Here is Summerian myth which is interesting since it links writing to 'diplomacy'. Here is the sequence explaining the first recorded text on writing https://youtu.be/M8gONI_YH7c?t=2675

      ||minam|| We may call Jennifer Ross to speak next week

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    1. events for DW

      ||Jovan|| ||AndrijanaG||

    2. ||Jovan||

      As we try to make words dance here is an interesting inspiration for our attempt to make 'our words dance'. It is an interesting inspiration because:

      • it provides font dynamics
      • it higlightes key words in the text (name of sessions).

      It seems to be mailchimp template. Viktor, could you have a look from design point of view - could this inspire some more engaging design of our event pages. Su Sonia - what is your advise/suggestion from the point of view of mix of text and design.

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    1. ||minam|| have a look what is the bet feature to engate with h-diplo

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    1. ||minam|| Let us engage H-Diplo community through this announcement page.

      Someting like this (please draft)

      Over the next 11 months we will have Historical Journey on Diplomacy and Technology. The main aim is to anchor current debates on AI and digital in the wider context of humanity dealing with new technology since writings till today. The main audience are practicising diplomats and diplomatic academic institutions.

      On this journey we will also explore evolution of technique of diplomacy from representation to negotiations.

      One of the aim is to shead more light on non-western traditions in diplomacy and technology.

      As you can see from the website the journey started with interview with Frans de Waal on early traces on diplomacy among primates. On 2X february we will focus on diplomacy in prehistory. March will focus on ancient diplomacy and so on till we come to our time.

      Please let us know if you would like to contribute via interviews or webinar discussions. Your advices will be particularly useful in pointing to new angles for addressing diplomacy-tech interplay or useful literature and resources.

      The results of this journey will be shared as creative commons for teaching and research purposes.

      Inspired by Churchill;s saying that '... ' we hope to contribute a bit to the current 'axial time' in history of humanity when rules for our AI and digital future are set.

      Here you can find more info on this journey: https://www.diplomacy.edu/diplomacy-and-technology

      With best regards,

      Jovan Kurbalija, Phd xxx xxx

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    1. Erik Gilbert and Jonathan T. Reynolds. "Africa in World History: From Prehistory to the Present". Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2004. 416 pp. Maps, illustrations, index. $42.00 (paper), ISBN 0-13-092907-7.

      Add to Journey's overall literature. We can use it also for engaging African scholars.

      ||minam||

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    1. His son and successor, Amenhotep IV, more commonly known as Akhenaton, was a religious reformer who fought the power of the Amon priesthood. His only military significance was to let the imperial possessions slip away, thereby setting the stage for the more dynamic foreign and military affairs of the Nineteenth Dynasty.

      Akhenaton was a great reformer but not good for strategic position of Egyptian empire. He lost many territories.

    2. While Amenhotep III ruled peacefully from 1386-1349 B.C., the Hittites had been establishing control over Syria and threatening Egypt's position in Palestine. His success in maintaining the balance of power among Egypt's neighbors was solely due to diplomacy.

      a great diplomat

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    1. The digital realm, with its extreme impermanence and selectiveness of personal agency and not natural forces, leads to the question as to what we are leaving to future professional historians and whether they will experience more difficulty in reconstructing anything about our time.

      Key quesiton for our journey:

      what we are going to pass to next generations?

    2. that leather and paper from that time have entirely disappeared (unless found in a desert or recopied for generations) remind the reader of the perishable nature of communication that has been increasing from that time into our own.

      key aspect for general series and real question for our era.

    3. Karen Radner, Michael Jursa, and the well-known and prolific Amelie Khurt.

      ||minam|| please have a look if we can make interview with some of them in March. Maybe this Amelie Khurt. You can draft e-mail which I can send to first her and others if she does not reply.

    4. emphasizes the role and training of scribes in both the royal and vassal courts

      diplomatic training

    5. This enables the Mesopotamian historian, or any for that matter, to observe that despite the changes of regime over the course of Mesopotamian history, communication networks (means of dispersing messages), methods of writing, and format of these messages appear to have remained consistent and with very little change, yielding great utility to diplomacy and governance.

      Continuity in Mesopotamian diplomacy

    6. Karen Radner, ed. State Correspondence in the Ancient World: From New Kingdom Egypt to the Roman Empire. Oxford Studies in Early Empires Series. Oxford Oxford University Press, 2013. Illustrations, charts, graphs. 322 pp. $74.00 (cloth), ISBN 978-0-19-935477-1.

      ||minam|| please add to resoruces for the session on ancient diplomacy.

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    1. Imagine you wanted to travel by car from one continent to another. For a smooth journey, you would need adequate roads that could take you across flatlands and mountainous regions, ships to transport you across oceans, bridges and tunnels, and proper directions. Telecommunications infrastructure is very similar. 

      testiranje dev.dig.watch

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    1. Not a lot new about online meetins, but some points about 'hanging out' which might be good for coffee breaks and ice breakers, and also interesting comment about privacy and use of otter.ai||Dragana||

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    1. Google and Rupert Murdoch’s News Corp have signed a multi-year partnership that will lead to the search engine paying for journalism from news sites around the world, including the Wall Street Journal, the Times and the Australian.The deal, which involves News Corp receiving “significant payments” to feature the company’s news outlets in Google’s News Showcase product, will last for three years, and comes with a number of other investments from Google, including “meaningful investments in video journalism” and the development of a subscription platform.

      Google and News Corp agreed on global deal, including Australia - more context on how much is Google willing to spend on the news sharing issue. ||StephanieBP||

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    1. In response to Australia’s proposed new Media Bargaining law, Facebook will restrict publishers and people in Australia from sharing or viewing Australian and international news content

      Google threatened and threw money at the problem, while FB actually cuts off news sharing on its platforms. FYI, the Media Bargaining Law is due to pass Australian parliament this Friday. ||StephanieBP||

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  2. Feb 2021
    1. The best and most direct way to control AI is to ensure that its values are our values

      Interesting philosophical view on AI ethics and governance ||Jovan|| ||JovanK||

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    1. f the widespread use of cloud computing, we started to move our digital assets (e.g. text files, personal data, spreadsheets, e-mail, and, to some extent, software applications) from our computer h

      Test annotation to check different groups

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    1. Our endorsement of Australia’s approach has had immediate impact. Within 24 hours, Google was on the phone with the Prime Minister, saying they didn’t really want to leave the country after all.

      Ok, as soon as this happened, I looked up news items about the meeting, and it appeared that it was Australia's PM to reveal the meeting to the press (I stand to be corrected). If this was the case, was it a planned move by the PM to force Google's hand? If it was, the plan worked.

    2. only one or two whales on one side of a nation’s table and dozens or hundreds of minnows on the other

      ha! of whales and minnows. Brad Smith might have taken inspiration from our illustration of the two big fish looking at each other in digest #19

    3. monopolist

      Microsoft calling Google and Facebook monopolies. Ouch

    4. Fascinating article by Brad Smith on Australia and big tech companies. Here is a summary of annotation. ||StephanieBP||, it could go into Weekly:

      Australian tech-news legislaiton takes new turn. Microsoft sided with Australian government developing of its approach that good buiness should support good cause. Microsoft supports compensation for traditional media from tech platforms as an important way for sustaining democracy and free society. Microsoft argues that not only US government should stop supporting US companies such cases, but the US should copy Australian approach in the United States. Brad Smith's text provides detailed analysis of legal, policy and technological aspects of this case.

      ||Pavlina|| there is an interesting reflection on 'baseball arbitration'. We may include it in arbitration page on DW.

      ||MariliaM|| there are a few interesting points on competition and anti-monopoly rules.

      ||Katarina_An|| It is an interesting building block for statistics on power of tech companies.

      I am finalising article on 'Digital Triptich for 2021' arguing that most digital politics will happen around three axes:

      • Tech companies - governments (anti-monopoly, etc.)
      • Between tech companies (competition for markets via regulations)
      • Between governments (traditional geo-politics - e.g. China and USA)

      ||MarcoLotti|| you can update content page;

      Should we upgrade this issue to trend page: Fight for fair share of revenue from content production

      ||NatasaPerucica||||VladaR||||AndrijanaG||||GingerP||

    5. Since 2000, newsroom revenue in the United States has fallen by 70% and employment has been cut in half. More than 2,000 newspapers have closed entirely. In many places, local news has been decimated.

      Level of digital attack on journalism.

    6. two-sided disease

      auto-immune disease

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    1. Diplo LMS

      Test 12345

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    1. consumer protection, open government data, paperless trading and market access. The facilitators reported constructive conversations and encouraging progress to further streamline the negotiating text.

      The negotiations seem to indicate that: 1) first issue to be closed: spam 2) Issues that have made substantive progress: e-signatures, e-authentication. 3) Issues that have made encouraging progress: consumer protection, open government data, paperless trading and market access. 4) Issue that remains a challenge (but there is pressure to make progress): data issues.

    2. stressed the importance of managing the negotiation process as efficiently as possible, particularly via the work of the small groups.

      It makes it even harder for developing countries, with less resources, to follow.

    3. openness, transparency and inclusiveness.

      While keeping the current practice of keeping the negotiating documents restricted :P

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    1. This is fascinating story about:

      • unique personality of president Kennedy: erudite, creative person, brave politician. This era needs people like him.
      • power of military-industrial sector which is today even more powerful than it was at Kennedy's time.
      • the level of risk that humanity is exposed to with nuclear bombs. On a few occasion, it was just Kennedy's personality that avoided a possible war and the end of the world.

      For me, the most fascinating was powerful of intuition of Kennedy who directed movie about his assassination.

      ||GingerP|| ||Pavlina||

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    1. support legal recourse

      The only mention on enforcement/recourse

    2. Conclusions and Recommendations

      Very "gentle" conclusions - no new points confirmed. After the recollection of state positions I expected more substantive recommendations

    3. States recalled that the indication that an ICT activity was launched or otherwise originates from the territory or the ICT infrastructure of a State may be insufficient in itself to attribute the activity to that State and that accusations of organizing and implementing wrongful acts brought against States should be substantiated

      Substantiating claims goes beyond what certain states stated - meaning some states declared it is upon their discretion to substantiate accusations publicly

    4. public institutions, or that impact the financial system,

      Affirming electoral, political systems and financial systems as potential threats expands the discussion held until now (including the potential threats in 2015 GGE report)

    5. potentially devastating humanitarian consequences of attacks on critical infrastructure (CI) and critical information infrastructure (CII) supporting essential services to the public such as medical facilities, energy, water, transportation and sanitation.

      No connection made to IHL in general or its applicability

    6. States establish a programme to continue to take forward existing agreements and commitments in their use of ICTs as set out in relevant General Assembly resolutions, in particular 70/237, as well as the conclusions and recommendations of this OEWG. Such discussions would take place under the First Committee of the United Nations General Assembly as a Programme of Action for advancing responsible State behaviour in cyberspace

      Moving on as PoA, if I understand correctly

    7. The United Nations has an essential role to play

      This is the first instance UN is mentioned as essential - the text does not position UN into a leading role for the discussion (mentions it always as one of the fora)

    8. States, in partnership with relevant organizations including the United Nations, develop further voluntary guidance on the implementation of norms of responsible State behaviour

      This echoes the PoA (point 2)

    9. protecting healthcare infrastructure including medical services and facilities as part of the norms addressing critical infrastructure.

      They are moving the protection of healthcare/medical infrastructure into the non-binging regulations, instead of applying existing binding IHL

    10. , a list of written proposals made by States at the OEWG on the elaboration of existing norms, guidance on implementation as well as new norms were compiled in a non-paper and will be made available online.

      Something to keep an eye on

    11. voluntarily share their national views on the issue of international law

      So far we have a handful of countries who have done this. It is in my view questionable whether others will follow, particularly those who would like to avoid publishing views on applicability of human rights laws or disclosing their thoughts on breach of responsibilities (such as USA, China)

    12. international humanitarian law reduces risks and potential harm to both civilians and civilian objects as well as combatants in the context of an armed conflict. At the same time, States underscored that international humanitarian law neither encourages militarization nor legitimizes resort to conflict in any domain

      This neither confirms nor denies applicability of the international humanitarian law, although several states argued that IHL applies to state's use of ICT as it is part of international law as such. However, paragraphs 21 and 22 above mention humanitarian impacts of possible threats.

    13. Draft Substantive Report [Zero Draft]

      Zero draft of the OEWG ||AndrijanaG|| ||Pavlina||

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    1. China focusses on global e-commerce of physical goods, with the aim to provide anoutlet for its unparalleled manufacturing competence, a sector where it holds globalcompetitive advantage. The global e-commerce opportunity comes tailor-made for it.On the other hand, China's attitude to global data flows that underlie trade in digitalgoods and services remains ambiguous. China's initial response to the Internet reflectedstrong political sensitivities to global information flows, which shaped its protectionistpolicies. But now it also clearly understands data as a strategic national asset, to beleveraged appropriately. Meanwhile, it has developed a strong digital cultural goodsindustry, with substantial export orientation5, and its mega digital corporations havebegun to pursue global ambitions as data based businesses. But China is still not tookeen to negotiate ‘free flow of data’ regimes, which is the central plank of the US ledglobal ‘e-commerce’ pitch

      Good summary of China's position on the e-commerce debate.

      ||JovanK||

    2. In fact,US government's own policy documents almost always use the term ‘digital trade’ andnot e-commerce.

      Reflections on the differences behind e-commerce and digital trade.

    3. Ifdeveloping countries are to benefit from these strong economic and social changes, theymust first be able to frame the nature of the phenomenon within the realities of theirspecific context and interests.

      Good reflection.

    4. The Chinese conception of ‘Internet plus’ presents the phenomenon of “the integrationof the Internet with the economic and social sectors”4 in the form of a well-developeddigital industrial policy.

      Internet-plus (Chinese) versus 4th industrial revolution (western).

    5. The mainstay of the digital economy, on the other hand, are digital businesses based pri-marily on data collected from outside their business systems — from personal, social, ar-tificial or natural sources. It is the digital intelligence obtained from such ‘outside’ datathat is employed to control the larger economic ecosystem. Data collectors, however, donot own these data sources, and therefore their complete ownership over data obtainedfrom them, and its unregulated use, is questionable. The issue becomes even more prob-lematic and complex when such data is taken out of national borders, with no clarityabout the nature of its further use.

      There is a need to look at different sectors of the digital economy, and which data flows they entail.

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    1. Link bait is all about creating content that is so awesome and valuable that journalists, bloggers, and other content publishers want to link to it.

      What is link bait

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    1. Please join our mailing list using the subscribe box at the bottom of the page.

      Can we have a button (or an anchor ) for the subscribe box in the upper part of the page? It's not very intuitive to scroll to the bottom, and many people won't read the intro text. ||Maja||

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    1. Proposals include a presumption of “technological neutrality” — whereby services must be operated in line with rules and schedules of commitments that countries agreed to before the new technology was invented. For example, if a country has agreed to subject financial services to WTO rules, they may not be able to keep digital currencies out of their market. The idea is to ‘future-proof’ commitments, even if the technology was not available when the country made those commitments.124 However, many global South governments have made it clear they do not accept this presumption in the WTO. At the same time, this might be achieved in the digital trade talks through a proposed provision on “non-discrimination” against digital services.

      technology neutrality and non-discrimination against digital services.

    2. Digital behemoths like Facebook are also joining the world of financial payment systems and ‘FinTech’ through digital currencies like Libra, which would further undermine regulatory sovereignty and stability;123 they should not be given ‘rights’ to access markets with unsafe new products by means of digital trade rules.

      What is the interplay between free flow of data (if it includes financial services) and digital currencies?

    3. through a prohibition on governments’ ability to adopt or maintain measures for electronic authentication; leaving the method for verifying electronic signatures in the hands of industry.

      Look if this is still current in JSI text proposal. ||MariliaM||

    4. Proposed digital trade rules would increase the chance of a global financial crisis. Allowing unrestricted cross-border trade in financial data — and financial transactions — could have huge unforeseen consequences. In the negotiations aimed at creating the TPP, the US Treasury argued that the right to hold data offshore should not include financial data, because of lessons learned in the global financial crisis, but Wall Street successfully lobbied to have this data included in the TiSA, and that will presumably also be the case in the WTO.

      Check the JSI section on financial data, and UK's proposals on this regard. ||MariliaM||

    5. Proposed digital trade rules would place extra burdens on governments to provide digital resources to foreign corporations

      A different (and a bit exagerated in my opinion) view on the merits of some trade facilitation measures to development.

    6. These disciplines are being further elaborated in parallel plurilateral negotiations on “domestic regulation” which may be concluded even before the talks on digital trade.

      Very important point. The discussion on exceptions in the JSI e-commerce negotiations need to be examined in parallel to the discussion on domestic regulation. Seek information on this ||MariliaM||

    7. But US-based tech companies have vastly increased their lobbying under the Trump administration,113 and many former regula-tors are part of the revolving door114 in Washington, DC, as in other capitals

      Jovan, the sources mentioned in these two footnotes could offer some interesting insights for comparison between tech lobby in Brussels and in the US. ||JovanK|| Pavlina, could be of interest to you ||Pavlina||

    8. The Report of the UN Secretary-General’s High-Level Panel on Digital Cooperation makes extensive recommendations regarding the need for multi-stakeholder global digital coop-eration for development, but its reference to the WTO simply notes that “any agreement will need to address concerns of a diverse range of countries, including lower-income countries in which the e-commerce sector is less developed”102, which is impossible given the negotiating dynamic

      Agreed. This is a potential connection to make in our work. ||JovanK||

    9. Poor countries have been clear that their concerns include increased access to energy, the Internet and other information and communication technologies (ICT) to close the digital divide; increased infra-structure for logistics, including transport and postal systems; legal and regulatory frameworks; access to finance; and capacity building in technologies to help them prepare to benefit from digitalisation in trade

      At least some of these issues could be included under a few chapters of the JSI draft negotiating text?

    10. Many of the proposals would also preclude developing countries from regional integration, which is widely viewed as essential for their develop-ment, as envisaged, for example, in the African Union’s Agenda 2063. Countries agreeing to allow cross-border data transfers, for example, would not be able to pool data in a regional African cloud, or build up interrelated industries in a sub-re-gional effort to increase added value among developing countries

      Very important point. But, then, what is the argument that the EU is using to push for an european cloud and free data flows at the same time?

    11. Servicification in the WTO

      The problems of "servicification"

    12. Developing countries are being pressured to include new services under WTO liberalisation rules. Many proposals include demands for additional market access for foreign corporations in telecommunications, financial services and computer-related services sectors. In the WTO, countries decide which services sectors will be subject to WTO rules by “committing” them in the GATS. Many developing countries have not committed passenger transport under WTO rules, but Uber has argued that it is a computer-related service, which could then be included under the proposed rules. Proponents are also advocating the principle of technological neutrality in which, if a country committed a service sector in the WTO, then, it is argued, that country has also committed a digitalised version of that service as well. Under this claim, a country that has included engineering design services or construction design services could be argued to have included the importing of 3D printing files.97 Likewise, many countries that have commit-ments in hotel or tourism services may be constrained from regulating Airbnb (or supporting a domestic version thereof). Services thus included would be subjected to the WTO principle of National Treatment, in which countries are required to provide treatment (subsidies, market access conditions, regulatory regimes, etc.) for the foreign corporations at least as good as the government provides for national companies. Therefore, developing countries would not be able to give domestic companies the same benefits of investment, special protections and economies of scale that developed countries gave theirs in their trajectories

      New services and discussions on the principle of 'technology neutrality' within GATS.

    13. In its flagship Trade and Development Report, UNCTAD explains the connection: “with the rise of export market concentration, large firms have increased their ability to extract rents from newer and more intangible barriers to competition, reflected in heightened protection for intellectual property rights and abilities to exploit national rules and regulations for profit shifting and tax avoidance purposes. The consequent increase in returns from monopolies generated by IPRs, as well as reduction in relative tax costs of larger companies, creates an uneven playing field. The empirical exercises carried out for this Report suggest that the surge in the profitability of top transnational corporations – a proxy for the very large firms dominating international trade and finance – together with their growing concen-tration, has acted as a major force pushing down the global labour income share, thus exacerbating personal income inequality.

      AI course update - module on economic issues related to AI

    14. Developing countries have the policy space to promote digital trade through domestic firms now and to build up their digital industrialisation through various policies, performance requirements, subsidies, incentives and the like. A digital industrialisation strategy would include creating domestic or regional data centres, which can then become important hubs for jump-starting software industries, Internet-related industries and other data-based industries. It should not go unno-ticed that the only country that has built up any true competition to the US-based Google, Facebook and Amazon is China – a nation that did so through digital indus-trialisation policies, not by opening up its market to foreign transnationals who had the benefit of government research funding and other subsidies, government procurement support, time, scale and other advantages

      Policy space to promote digital industrialization should be preserved.

    15. While the technical digital divide may be narrowing slowly, the economic benefits of digital-isation are accruing overwhelmingly to a few superstar firms in the United States and China, and most developing countries are actually falling further behind.

      technical digital divide closing, but economic digital divide widening.

    16. he dominant approach to considering only prices should be broadened to consider, for example, consumer privacy, personal data protection, consumer choice, market structure, switching costs and lock-in effects

      Elements to consider in order to modernise antitrust norms