1. Last 7 days
    1. Space-based data technologies providing real-timeglobal information monitor progress towards sustainability.

      ||sorina||||nikolabATdiplomacy.edu||

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    1. At least since the days of Peter the Great, Russian elites have looked westward, adopting western ways of appearance and behavior (while remaining distinctly Russian beneath the garb and manners); adapting western institutions (even if often only superficially); borrowing western patterns of thinking (while creatively developing them, as with Marxism); seeking to become a great European power; then, in Soviet days, a global superpower; and, more recently, a key component of a greater Europe from Lisbon to Vladivostok.

      Is Russia ending its 'western phase'?

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    1. Clinton and House speaker Newt Gingrich – worked together behind the public scenes of political and personal invective to give Silicon Valley the lax internet legislation it craved.

      There were regulations in the Silicon Valley.

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    1. Regulation has acted as a form of quality control for Europe’s entire existence and success.

      Rules are always 'quality control' (whatever it means). Rules are there to step in when everything else fails. It has been purpose of rules from Habeas Corpus Act, Magna Carta Libertatum. See more on fascinating door of the UN Supreme Court https://www.diplomacy.edu/blog/digital-magna-carta-between-two-doors/

    2. from an apparent market failure

      I would call it even 'societal failure'. It is not only market that is threatened but also public spaces, trust and other assets of society.

    3. This analysis does not follow logically with many non-sequiturs. It is difficult to understand the main arguments, including the following points:

      First, the most confusing argument was the one that the EU should not "subscribe to the Internet its values", even if these values are democratic and progressive. What should the EU do then?

      Since time immemorial, the core values of countries (and other social organisations) have been applied via regulations. For example, the societal value of protecting human lives is applied by regulation against killing human beings. The article does not mention the US-led Declaration on the Future of the Internet which calls for digital governance and regulation inspired by values.

      Second, the article promotes 'the Internet’s own values' to be the opposite of EU's. How different are these values from the core EU’s values of openness, inclusion, etc. ?

      Third, the author also opposes the EU's request to use technology to filter out online child sexual exploitation. Why not? It is actually happening by tech platforms already. What's wrong with the EU codifying legally this practice of tech companies.

      Fourth, the article complains that EU's processes are not inclusive and driven by business interests. Yes, tech companies and other business actors lobby heavily in Brussels as they do in other regulatory capitals. They are just one of the actors, which cannot capture regulation. The EU is often criticised for slowness and inefficiency caused exactly by inclusive processes involving member states, parliaments and other actors. Even at a basic level of logic, this argument doesn't follow. Why would the EU adopt regulations that could hurt big tech interests (data/AI, competition policy, etc.) if the big tech was able to capture EU's regulations?

      Fifth, China appears in this title with very little substantiation on the "China trap" in the text. It is not clear how, for example, GDPR can bring EU into 'China trap'. The Internet is regulated in many countries, including the USA. There are many EU's concerns in digital geopolitics with China, but it is not the EU's regulation.

    4. missing a major opportunity to promote an Internet that offers the best of both worlds — one where regulation can exist without compromising its original vision and values.

      What does this mean in reality?

    5. to fall into the “China trap” — focusing on regulation aimed at repositioning the way power is distributed within the Internet ecosystem.

      What is 'the Internet ecosystem'. On power, is it economic or political power or...?

      On the economic power, in January this year, the market capitalisation of Apple was 3.1 trillion USD while the combined GDP of the African continent was 2.4 trillion USD. Is Apple part of the internet ecosystem? Should we re-distribute this power?

    6. to reflect both the values of the Internet and Europe,

      Few paragraphs above, there was statement that Europe wants to promote its values via regulation. Now, it fails to do so. How?

      I won't comment on 'values of the Internet' as they remain vague.

    7. has failed to live up to this promise of collaboration with the wider Internet community.

      Strong claim without any substantiation. Who is the 'wider Internet community'? Are those citizens of Europe who use digital tools (almost 90% of the population) of engineers or leaders of tech companies? We need to define soon this vague notion of "internet community' if we want to preserve the core values of the Internet.

    8. the copyright lobby, big tech or traditional telecommunication providers — and civil society continues to struggle to be heard.

      Lobbying structures are growing in Brussels. But, I am not sure that they 'drive' agenda. It is still driven by EU's public institutions.

    9. representing different interests

      EU is so far the most diverse political project globally. The main criticism of EU is that EU's inclusivity reduces EU's agility to act.

      Inclusivity and transparency is in the foundation of EU's construction as you have 27 member states.

    10. regulatory proposal for the sexual exploitation of children, which will force companies to come up with technologies to scan for such material instead

      Non sequiture. I did not find any reference in EU's proposals that question interoperability or open standards approach as EU argues for technological assistance in filtering legal rule to ban materials on the sexual exploitation of children.

    11. diverse and constantly evolving community of users and applications.

      How diverse? How constantly evolving are?

      What are communities?

      Many questions to be answered in this rather empty and all-catch phrase.

    12. serving

      this is not value. Serving is activity.

    13. the Internet’s value

      what is this value which is different from key values of let say USA, EU or any other society.

    14. to use upload filters,

      Try to upload files on Youtube or post comment in Facebook. My friend has been in 'Facebook jail' for completely innocent comments for last few months.

      The key question is: would we like tech platforms to set filters as they like or to have it regulated by some core values of human society? It is matter of choice. Personally, i prefer EU's approach where citizens have some 'justice chance' with public institutions. But, others may prefer to put their right to justice in hands of private companeis. If it is the case, let us move in this direction. But, choices must be made with full clarity.

    15. anyone

      It is not the case. It shows typical cognitive failure of many in tech industry when 'possibility' (to connect)' becomes 'reality'. In reality, it remains fiction.

    16. accessible

      The crucial difference is between 'accessible' and 'affordable'. It could be accessible to many but not all.

    17. will oblige Over The Top (OTT) service providers to pay telecoms providers for their infrastructure investment.

      Non sequitour. First, article states wrong info that the Internet is not limited to any specific technology or interest group. It applies to TCP/IP which plays less and less relevance in political economy of the Interent.

      Then, basing n the 'mistaken' hypothesis, it draws 'conclusion' that OTT should not pay telecoms. It is becoming even more paradoxical when OTT are becoming telecoms (owners of the cable). What is the logic not to allow EU even to consider 'redistribution of pie'. The similar discussion happened in the USA around net neutrality.

    18. it’s not limited to any specific technology or interest group.

      Is it the case today when big tech owns everything from platforms to cables?

    19. the Internet is global, yet Europe very much insists on a notion of digital sovereignty

      Many countreis argue for 'digital sovereignty'. There is nothing wrong with 'sovereignty' concept as long as it does not harm public values of their societies and global public good.

      It is not a binary decision yes/no for 'digital sovereignty'. It is 'analogue' decision of type of sovereignty. Is it over data or infrstructure or online taxes or? Decision on, for example, filtering data has conssequences for national economic and societal developments. These choices and trade-offs should be informed and responsible. We can be free to choose, but the consequences of our choices are not something we can choose.

    20. the Internet’s own values.

      Could you outline these values which are different from, for example, core EU values?

    21. Europe’s biggest asset

      It is not only EU. What about US-driven Declaration on the Future of the Internet, which also outlines the values that US and other signatories plan to promote in digital governance.

      There is nothing wrong with outlining values and implementing them.

    22. But by subscribing its own values onto the Internet, Europe is making the same mistake China does: It’s attempting to circumscribe the Internet within its own political, social and cultural confines.

      Non sequitur. In previous paragraph, there is support for European values. Now, there is a shift that these values should not be implemented via regulation. Core values of society are implemented via regulation since Hammurabi laws (at least in written history). 'Do not kill' regulation applies 'value' of respecting human life. We have to get back to basics when it comes to the way how humans organise society in the tech or pre-tech era.

      So far, I have not learned about anything else except human society concluding 'social contract' (formal or informal), developing rules of behaviour, and institutions that can apply these rules.

    23. Europe is interested in an Internet based on its own values, with its entire regulatory agenda premised on pluralism and inclusion — both of which promote “strategic sovereignty.”

      What is wrong with pluralism and inclusion as regulatory approaches? What is wrong with strategic sovereingty?

    24. was the opening curtain for Europe’s approach to Internet regulation,

      It is not correct. GDPR, the key digital regulatory instrument, was introduced in 2016.

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    1. MiCA will also address environmental concerns surrounding crypto, with firms forced to disclose their energy consumption as well as the impact of digital assets on the environment.

      New law on environmental impact of crypto-currencies.

    2. The landmark law, known as Markets in Crypto-Assets, or MiCA, is designed to make life tougher for numerous players in the crypto market, including exchanges and issuers of so-called stablecoins, tokens that are meant to be pegged to existing assets like the U.S. dollar.

      EU is starting new regulation MiCA (Market in Crypto-Assets) law.

      ||ArvinKamberi||

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    1. when there is an interpretive lens required to understand the information, when that information is particularly sensitive, or when leaders want to ensure there’s ample time to process it and ask questions.

      When do you need to share information online

    2. Exhibit

      Table with type of collaborative interactions.

      ||Jovan||

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    1. This question is explored by the Swiss Digital Initi-ative in this study to better understand what trust means from the customer’s perspective. As in the analogue world, trust in the digital space is a complex construct, influenced by context and various factors. It is not only about aspects such as security, but also about reliability and responsibility. And last but not least: trust cannot be mandated – also in the digital world. You have to earn it.

      ||Jovan|| nakon naseg razgovora, mislim da je ovo interesantno za istrzivanje cybersecurity i geopolitike

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    1. Create videos enriched with interactions

      ||minam|| Pogledaj ovaj sistem

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    1. Title: How to link digitalisation and UN Security Council?

      Excerpt: US ambassador identifies 3 areas of digitalisation of UN Security Council: getting more data and information; apps for humanitarian aid; helping peacekeeping missions

      Cybersecurity is often in news. But, there are many more impacts of digitalisation on security of modern society from food and climate, to supply chains and peacekeeping.

      This holistic impact of digitalisation on modern society is behind the US push for higher relevance of digitalisation on the agenda of the UN Security Council.

      In the Economist article, the US ambassador to the UN Linda Thomas-Greenfield identifies three steps for strenghtening links between digitalisation and security at the UN UN Security Council:

      Firstly, DATA gathered form satelites to smart tractors can help more informed and proactive actions ahead of climate, food and political crisis.

      Secondly, DIGITAL TOOLS can help in hnadling crisis from distribution of humanitarian assistance to helping those in the need of assistance.

      Thirdly, DIGITAL PEACE can be strenghtend via use of social media, GPS monitoring and other tools in the UN peacekeeping missions.

      As cross cutting activities, the article calls for wider access to the Internet, digital literacy and development of new apps and tools for crisis management and humanitarian assistance.

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    1. US Cyber Command chief confirms USA conducted offensive cyber operations in support of Ukraine

      Commander of the US Cyber Command General Paul Nakasone confirmed that the USA conducted offensive cyber operations in support of Ukraine. ‘We’ve conducted a series of operations across the full spectrum: offensive, defensive, [and] information operations,’ the general stated, but did not elaborate further.

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    1. Will the EU ban providing cloud services to Russia?

      The EU is considering a ban on providing cloud computing services to Russia as part of a new round of sanctions, an EU official told Reuters.

      Although the EU announced in a public press release that the sixth sanctions package would include a restriction on the provision of cloud services, cloud technologies were not included in the final decision. As later explained by the press officer for the EU Council, the reference to the ban on cloud services in the first statement was 'a fabric error'.

      The cloud service restriction was not recommended by the European Commission, according to an EU official familiar with sanctions decisions. Nonetheless, such a prospect was not ruled out.

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    1. Russia unveils internet traffic backup plan

      Russia is prepared to face eventual internet disconnection by Europe, stated Maksut Shadayev, Minister of Digital Development, Communications and Mass Media. The plan is for Russian internet providers to redirect traffic through international exchange points in Asia, and Rostelecom has the necessary capabilities, Shadayev explained. Traffic exchange points in Europe are still open for Russian internet providers.

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    1. Russia’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs: West risks 'direct military clash' over cyberattacks

      Russia warned that the West's cyberattacks against Russian infrastructure could lead to direct military confrontation.

      In a statement, the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs said that 'The militarization of the information space by the West, and attempts to turn it into an arena of interstate confrontation, have greatly increased the threat of a direct military clash with unpredictable consequences.'

      The statement added that Washington was ‘deliberately lowering the threshold for the combat use’ of cyberweapons.

      The statement also attributes cyberattacks on Russian infrastructure and governmental institutions to the USA and Ukraine and warns: ‘Rest assured, Russia will not leave aggressive actions unanswered.’

      The warning came after Russia’s housing ministry website was hacked over the weekend and its traffic redirected to a ‘Glory to Ukraine’ sign.

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    1. Wikipedia appeals Russian order to remove Ukraine war information

      Wikipedia’s owner, the Wikimedia Foundation, has filed an appeal against a Moscow court decision which demanded that Wikipedia remove content related to the Ukraine war. Previously, Wikimedia was fined 5 million rubles (US$88,000) in a court decision for failing to remove the content in question. Wikimedia argues that people have a right to know the facts of the war and that removing information is a violation of human rights to knowledge access and free expression.

      Wikimedia stated that, while its website is accessible within Russia, the country has no authority over Wikipedia, which it describes as a global resource available in 300 languages. The Moscow court argued that the disinformation posted on Wikipedia represented a threat to Russian public order and that the foundation in fact operates in Russia.

      So far, the foundation has refused to comply with Russia's demands to delete the articles in question.

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    1. USA, UK, EU dismantle Russian hacking botnet

      A joint law enforcement operation involving the USA, the EU countries, and the UK has dismantled the infrastructure of a Russia-linked botnet known as RSOCKS stated the US Department of Justice (DoJ).

      The RSOCKS botnet has compromised millions of computers and devices worldwide, including IoT equipment like routers and smart garage openers.

      According to the DoJ, RSOCKS customers paid between US$30 and US$200 per day to channel malicious internet activity through hacked computers to mask or hide the source of the traffic.

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    1. Two African leaders warn about the future of multilateralism. They think that it is not fair that Africa pays for the geopolitical games of big powers.

      They argue that UN has to be reformed in order to protect small and developing countries from power games.

      Concretely speaking, they propose the reform of the UN Security Council.

      Excerpt/twitter: African leaders call for renewed UN to protect small and developin gcountries from geopolitical power games.

      Title: How to protect Africa from geopolitical power games

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    1. Title: Amr, UK microchips design company, becomes a key actor in digital geopolitics.

      Arm, UK\s microchips design factory, symbolises a shift in the semiconductor industry. Arm focuses on design chips which are becoming increasingly complicated. Amr's design is trend into chips by manufacturers worldwide, ending in mobile phones, drons and other devices. For example, Amr's design is behind 99% of smartphone chips.

      ARM tries to keep its unique position by remaining neutral actor in semi-conductor industry. By refusing recent buy-out offer by Nvida, Amr keeps its neutral positioin by remaining, asA Amr's boss Simon Segars put it 'Switzerland of the tech industry'.

      Another challenge for Amr will be risc-v chip architecture that lacks royalities and licence fees, the core of companies business model.

      Amr''s role wll play an important role in emerging geopolitics of microchps. Companies importance is so high that some UK politicans propsoed government to take controlling 'goden share' of Amr.

      Source: The Economist

      Twitter: AMR, a UK high-tech company is a key player in chips geopolitics. It focuses on the design and maintains its neutrality among large semiconductor manufacturers.

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  2. Jun 2022
    1. Ukrainians targeted with Cobalt Strike, CredoMap malware,

      ‘The APT28’ (aka Fancy Bear) hacking group supported by Russia is believed to be responsible for a recent spike in phishing campaigns that are spread by email, warns The Ukrainian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-UA Team)

      CERT-UA Team explained that emails warning of 'unpaid taxes' or 'nuclear terrorism' are intended to lure victims into opening the file contained in the email. They cautioned that opening the files might cause users to download the malicious software Cobalt Strike or CredoMap.

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    1. Meta loses appeal in Russian court over 'extremist activity' label

      Meta Platforms, Inc. lost an appeal in a Moscow court after being found guilty of 'extremist activity' in Russia in March.

      According to a Kommersant reporter in the courtroom, Meta's lawyer argued that refusing to block access to content and labelling state-controlled media were not activities that meet the definition of extremism.

      The court decision requires that whenever organisations or people publicly mention Meta, they need to disclose that Meta's operations are illegal in Russia.

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    1. Russian e-commerce firm Ozon starts selling goods via parallel imports mechanism

      The Russian-based e-commerce firm Ozon has started selling goods through a parallel imports mechanism on its platform, the company confirmed to Reuters.

      Ozon claims to offer a range of items to Russian customers, including smartphones and their components. It also aims to prevent the appearance of counterfeit products on its platform by requesting suppliers confirm the products' originality.

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    1. Microsoft: Russian state-backed hackers targeted Ukrainian allies

      Since the start of the Ukraine war, Russian state-backed hackers have engaged in network infiltration and espionage operations against 128 businesses in 42 countries that are allied with Ukraine, Microsoft claimed in a new report.

      While Russian hackers prioritised NATO governments, they have also launched attacks against think tanks, humanitarian organisations, IT companies, and critical infrastructure. Microsoft estimates that 29% of identified attacks were successful, with a quarter of those leading to data theft. Microsoft also asserts that Russia is conducting an information war to influence public opinion in favour of the conflict domestically and overseas.

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    1. We express our concerns on the risk, and ethical dilemma related to Artificial Intelligence, such as privacy, manipulation, bias, human-robot interaction, employment, effects and singularity among others. We encourage BRICS members to work together to deal with such concerns, sharing best practices, conduct comparative study on the subject toward developing a common governance approach which would guide BRICS members on Ethical and responsible use of Artificial Intelligence while facilitating the development of AI.

      BRICS cooperation on AI. Nothing too specific (unlike in some other fields). Interesting that they spend space to address concerns ||JovanK|| ||sorina||

    2. Digital BRICS Task Force (DBTF) and the decision to hold the Digital BRICS Forum in 2022. We encourage the BRICS Institute of Future Networks and the DBTF to make suitable working plans at an early date, and carry out cooperation on R&D and application of new and emerging technologies.

      BRICS cooperation on emerging tech, including 'Institute for future networks' ||JovanK|| ||sorina||

    3. 38. We recognize the dynamism of the digital economy in mitigating the impact of COVID-19 and enabling global economic recovery.

      BRICS Declaration - para. on digital trade ||MariliaM||

    4. cyber

      single mention of 'cyber'

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    1. wearables, health records, health-related artificial intelligence (ai) and the ultimate challenge of extending human longevity.

      Kye areas of Google digital health

    2. Techno-pharmacopoeia

      New keyword

    3. Alphabet is the fifth-highest-ranking business in the Nature Index, which measures the impact of scientific papers, in the area of life sciences, behind four giant drugmakers and 20 spots ahead of Microsoft, the only other tech giant in the running.

      What is the Nature Index

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    1. Recent events have also shown how three weaknesses in crypto can amplify trouble: fuzzy valuations, incestuous relationships and the lack of a liquidity backstop.

      Three weaknesses of cryptocurrencies

      ||ArvinKamberi||||JovanNj||

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    1. It is nevertheless limited in how much it can charge for its products by the emergence of a new challenger: risc-v. This is a novel chip architecture that lacks royalties and licence fees.

      to be checked about this shift in micro-processor industry

      ||VladaR||

    2. Simon Segars, who stepped down as Arm’s boss this year, used to describe the firm as the neutral “Switzerland of the tech industry”.

      Why Arms is 'Switzerland of the tech industry'?

    3. Removing the need to design a chip—a complicated, highly specialised job—has made Arm’s off-the-shelf designs popular, especially as chips have become more and more complicated. New Street Research, a firm of technology analysts, reckons Arm has a 99% share of the $25bn market for smartphone chips. Its products are widely used in everything from drones and washing machines to smart watches and cars. Arm says it has sold just under 2,000 licences since its founding (see chart). More than 225bn chips based on its designs have been shipped. It hopes to hit 1trn by 2035.

      Here is how this business model functions

    4. Unlike firms such as Intel, which sells chips that it both designs and manufactures, Arm trades only in intellectual property (ip).

      It is useful to explain different business models around microchips industry.

    5. Look at Arm’s finances and the interest seems puzzling. Its sales rose by 35% last year to $2.7bn—not bad, but peanuts next to the giants of chip design. Its valuation, as implied by the Nvidia deal, has risen by a quarter in six years. In the same period Qualcomm’s market capitalisation is up by half and Nvidia’s has risen 13-fold, recent market carnage notwithstanding.

      Rise of share of microchips producers. Good visualisaiton.

      Nice for visualisation at our microchips page.

      ||VladaR||||Jovan||

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    1. Emerging technologies

      All this emerging technologies have the potential of ubiquitous beyond traditional state jurisdictions, as countries race to grasp the digital transformation benefits regulations lag behind. This exposes new global threats like never before. There lies the importance to acknowledge international law and humanitarian international law as key principles to set a baseline regardless of context, technology, or actors.

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    1. ¿Cuáles son tus principales conclusiones de este curso?

      The course has been very useful for me, and also for my country. Since it has provided me with the necessary knowledge to make relevant contributions in diplomatic matters in cyberspace. Despite the fact that the pace of the course has been accelerated along with the day-to-day commitments and responsibilities, I have been able to put what I have learned into practice in real time, through my participation in groups such as the OEWG and the AdHoc Committee.

    2. Cómo evitamos la duplicación de esfuerzos?

      Strengthening and supporting existing work groups and unifying efforts. For example, in the Dominican Republic we have the support of both the United States and the European Union, and it has been key to sit everyone down at a table and evaluate the execution of the National Action Plan so as not to duplicate efforts, instead carrying out activities in a shared and in parallel.

    3. ¿Quién debe implementar y pagar por la creación de capacidad?

      States must assume the commitment to promote and create capacities to be resilient.

    4. ¿Son suficientes las normas voluntarias o se necesitan normas vinculantes?

      The recent conflict has shown that the voluntary norms are not always assumed by the States, I think it is necessary that several of the prohibitions should be established as binding.

    5. ¿Es necesario un tratado mundial vinculante?

      Definitely yes, since cyberspace has no borders. The great challenge is to bind local laws so that the commitments assumed by all States can be carried out.

    6. The UN Ad Hoc Committee on Cybercrime: Mandated to develop a draft treaty on combating cybercrime.

      The Dominican Republic holds the Vice Presidency of this group and we are focused on making important contributions now that we are also drafting our new law against cybercrime.

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    1. el impacto de las tecnologías digitales en los derechos humanos

      Mainly in this aspect. Although many times, measures that are necessary to establish to combat cybercrime, make its effective prosecution more complicated. However, I think they generate an adequate counterweight to avoid excessive use and abuse.

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    1. ctivities affect vulnerable populations and communities.

      This is very valid and what may have been useful data can be used as a weapon for unintended purposes.

      Another example is how highly detailed biometric databases built with U.S. funding and assistance in Afghanistan threatened to become a weapon when the data was accessed by the Taliban

      Afghans who’d worked with foreign governments rushed to hide evidence of their online actions, afraid of the Taliban using their digital/online posts against them.

      The article below delves further into this as well as details the dangers of location data when it comes to humanitarian aid.

      Details here: https://www.brookings.edu/techstream/the-crucial-need-to-secure-the-location-data-of-vulnerable-populations/

    2. Big data is anonymous, so it doesn’t invade our privacy.

      Not necessarily - I disagree with this.

      Big data may be defined as: extremely large data sets that may be analysed computationally to reveal patterns, trends, and associations, especially relating to human behaviour and interactions.

      The analysis and correlation and drawing of patterns can actually make sense out of seemingly unrelated data and allow identification of who to the level of personal information (which ultimately may invade privacy).

      Second, common identifiers (not necessarily PII) in different data sets from different sources may ultimately result in identifying the source of the data. The big challenge today is how effectively data is pseudonymised an de-identified.

      Two articles I found useful: https://www.cpomagazine.com/data-privacy/privacy-anonymity-age-big-data/

      An alternative view here where this article implies that big data can remain private YET it at the same time talks about possibility to re-identify what was previously considered anonymous: https://www2.itif.org/2014-big-data-deidentification.pdf

    3. With enough data, the numbers speak for themselves.

      I do not fully agree with this statement. It is never just about quantity of data - more about quality and integrity of the data sources.

      When it comes to data, it is important to be mindful of confirmation bias where one observes tendency to search for, interpret, focus on and remember information in a way that confirms one’s preconceptions. This bias usually occurs when the person performing has a predetermined assumption in which data analysis is used to prove it. They then keep looking in the data until this assumption can be proven.

      Selection bias is another thing that may disprove the statement above . The bias introduced by the selection of individuals, groups for data for analysis in such a way that proper randomization is not achieved . This then makes prevents the sample obtained from being truly representative of the population intended to be analysed.

    4. data quality

      Indeed data quality has been the big question with big data driven decision-making.

      The question is always about whether the source of data is reliable and whether the data used is free from bias. This is why the choice of source of data needs to be carefully considered to ensure appropriate balance and minimize subjectivity.

      An article I found useful that explained data bias (which ultimately speaks to the quality of the data): https://towardsdatascience.com/understanding-subjectivity-in-data-science-70a25b2ea39f

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    1. Click here to view original web page at timesofindia.indiatimes.com

      Meta intensifies communication on the advantages of Metaverse by three video examples:

      • university lecture
      • virtual surgery
      • historical lesson

      Later this year, Meta will introduce its Cambria headset as the key tool for joining metaverse.

      You can learn more here: https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/gadgets-news/facebook-owner-meta-shows-future-applications-of-metaverse/articleshow/92280553.cms

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    1. ||sorina|| We should include this in the next version of the Africa paper. It talks about new Chinese development initaitive.

    2. the Friends of the Global Development Initiative

      ||Katarina_An|| Could we find list of these countries?

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    1. First came America’s tariffs on Chinese exports. Then the covid-19 pandemic boosted demand for a particular constellation of goods while constraining their production and transport. Most recently Russia’s war in Ukraine sent commodity prices soaring and reminded firms how quickly a political shock can close one market and wreak havoc in others.

      Three pressurs on supply chaings.

    2. Supply chains are the fibres out of which the past decades’ globalisation is woven.

      communicaiton is fiber of which diplomacy is woven. Without communication diplomacy does not exist.

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    1. Most Latin American countries do not want to have to choose between the United States and China, as Donald Trump once suggested.

      Similar to Africa ||sorina||

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    1. The agency said it had discovered that Russian intelligence was using smartphone games to induce unwitting youngsters to snap and upload geotagged photos of critical infrastructure, military and civilian. In exchange, players receive virtual prizes of no value outside the video-game world. And Russia gets to wreck their country.

      Use of Onlne Games in wars

    2. Olga Khmil, one of Molfar’s intelligence analysts, says Russia is now using group channels in messaging apps like Telegram to aim its artillery better. Russians pretending to be Ukrainians on these channels feign fear of shelling in order to elicit information about infrastructure that has and has not been hit. On May 24th the sbu revealed an even more devious approach to such espionage.

      Use of Telegram in Ukraine

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    1. America’s share of the “hash rate”—the computing power on the network—rose from 11% to 38% in the year to January.

      ||ArvinKamberi|| what is hash-rate and how they calculate it. Is there any survey

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    1. India, the world’s largest democracy, is the trophy in America’s quest for stronger alliances. It is increasingly at odds with China. Its help in controlling the Strait of Malacca would be invaluable in any war with China. The Quad, which has started meeting at the level of leaders, seeks gradually to draw India in. Yet India is wary of an alliance, and remains close to Russia, which supplies a lot of its weapons.

      India's position

    2. The “Five Eyes” (with Australia, Britain, Canada and New Zealand) share intelligence; aukus (with Australia and Britain) is developing nuclear-powered submarines and other weapons; and the Quad (with Australia, India and Japan) discusses everything from vaccines to maritime security.

      Network of American security projects. ||VladaR||

    3. “guardrails”

      Guardrails is part of new language in global diplomacy

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    1. Apparently nationalism is an even stronger force than conservatism. Americans in the early republic tried to distance their English from Britain’s. And for its part, Britain has more recently pushed away from American English, first as an empire that could afford to condescend to its former colonies, later as a medium-sized power that both admired and fretted about American might. Those worrying about the Americanisation of British English have a point.

      Language politics

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    1. The country has few productive industries; it is instead dependent on remittances, which amount to more than 20% of gdp.

      to have some statistics on dependent on remittances worldwid

      (to send to economic/financial pesons)

    2. Many fret that bitcoin will decrease transparency. Some reckon it is a way for officials to evade possible American sanctions. Others fear bitcoin opens the way for money-laundering and corruption. Several ministers were under investigation for misuse of pandemic funds before Mr Bukele fired the attorney-general. Cybersecurity is also an issue. It is unclear if anyone aside from Mr Bukele knows El Salvador’s bitcoin keys, the codes needed to prove ownership and make transactions.

      El Salvador example shows all problem of bitcoin and blockchain: decrease transparency, open for money-laundering and corruption, risk of cybersecurity, who ownse the key for bitcoin (only one person)?

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    1. by the China Institutes of Contemporary International Relations, a state think-tank, spoke of the need for laws and regulations surrounding “virtual labour”

      Could you analyse this text on 'virtual labour' from China.

      (to be send to curator for labour)

    2. Title: Metavere is coming with virtual celebrities in China

      Virtual celebrities are becoming popular in China instead of real-life ones. Virtual celebrities are avatars generated by computers and operated by anonymous humans.

      They sing, dance, and talk like real-life celebrities. Some of them like Carol from ByteDance have millions of followers.

      Companies are happy to use virtual celebrities as they cost much less than real ones and they can be controlled easily.

      The estimated value of the virtual-celebrity market in China is $16bn in 2021.

      But new problems emerge. According to the Economist coverage, the real person behind Carol's avatar complained about being 'bullied, overworked and underpaid' by ByteDance.

      Is this a glimpse of an emerging metaverse economy with more centralised control and fewer rights for human beings?

      As billions are invested into metaverse economy worldwide, companies, countries, and citizens should start discussing impact of metaverse on society from human well being to labour rights.

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    1. Lemoine

      What suprised Lemoine.

    2. In May, Facebook parent Meta opened its language model to academics, civil society and government organizations.

      ||anjadjATdiplomacy.edu||||JovanNj|| Anything new on this move?

    3. LaMDA, short for Language Model for Dialogue Applications

      what is LaMDA

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    1. Huge “foundation models” are turbo-charging AI progress

      title

    2. We gave a selection of Economist covers to an application developed by Microsoft that combines their Florence model and OpenAI’s GPT-3 to generate text descriptions of images.

      Generation of text from images.

    3. GitHub Copilot,

      We may test this tool.

    4. Text-to-image processes are also impressive. The illustration at the top of this article was produced by using the article’s headline and rubric as a prompt for an ai service called Midjourney. The next illustration is what it made out of “Speculations concerning the first ultraintelligent machine”; “On the dangers of stochastic parrots”, another relevant paper, comes later. Abstract notions do not always produce illustrations that make much or indeed any sense, as the rendering of Mr Etzioni’s declaration that “it was flabbergasting” shows. Less abstract nouns give clearer representations; further on you will see “A woman sitting down with a cat on her lap”.

      Shall we try to use this Midjourney platofrm to illustrate some of our books. For example, we can have some segments of the Geneva Digital Atlas illustrated by this tool.

      ||Jovan||||MarcoLotti||||JovanNj||||anjadjATdiplomacy.edu||

    5. “Enlightenment”—a trillion-parameter model built at the Beijing Academy of Artificial Intelligence

      Do we know anything on this model or Chinese research?

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