1. Last 7 days
    1. In the absence of formalised venues and rules of procedure, how are the inclusion and exclusion of stakeholders decided and managed?

      In International relations, the principle of "Customs" in international law, that is international obligations arising from established international practices versus obligations arising from formal written conventions and treaties, is a very pragmatic and practical practice. This therefore allows for the management of the included /excluded stake holder . For some it may seem as a trial and error, however in time this practice become formal rule of procedures.

    2. In your opinion, what are the most important factors that led to the emergence of tech diplomacy?

      The rise and power of tech companies over the past two decades have led Governments /Sates to step back to review the their overall effect on social, political and economic aspects of the world systems. Initially Governments allowed a lassie faire & innovative approach to tech companies development. However it can be agreed that this is inimical to wholistic development. Consequently due to the need to 'manage' this explosive growth, States particularly the EU & USA began to have a more targeted engagement with Tech companies.

    3. How can tech companies contribute to solving policy challenges or challenges that the diplomatic practice faces?

      This can be done by using technology to formulate products/programes that will be understood by diplomats. For example, breaking down problems into creative and implementable For example AI animation and text could be used to show the negative aspects of global warming and climate change.

    4. In your opinion, what are some of the main reasons for companies to engage in tech diplomacy?

      To create a win win scenario. The world system ironically has moved away from a very free market mode of operations to one of more regulations. As Tech companies thrive on innovations, there may be instances where regulations for example matters relating to the environment will affect their operation as seen with 3M and the release high rates of toxic in the environment to make their products.

    5. What determines a tech company’s area of interest in tech diplomacy interactions?

      This depends on the overall objective and the ethos of the company . For some tech companies they would like to inform the diplomats about their core functions. For others, they would like to influence the public space on matter they are working on for example AI .

    6. Do tech companies have a global responsibility to address common challenges, such as climate change?

      Ironically yes, why ? Because everything on earth is finite and if not managed in a sustainable way, will not be available for use in years to come/ Also owner of Tech are also reside on EARTH and if matters such as climate change, human right violations can and will affect them

    7. Question : what are the main hubs beyond Silicon Valley where tech diplomacy should be practiced ?

      This is a tough question, as Tech companies will establish themselves in areas where language, capital resources are in their favour. Nevertheless, because of the increase in population and improving growth in other jurisdictions it would be prudent to establish Tec hubs in countries in South America, Brazil and Africa – South Africa, Namibia and to expand in India.

    8. What questions are important to ask to evaluate tech diplomacy practices What are the respective targets of the negotiations - Investment, cyber security, increase it trade , innovation ect ? At the end of the day who are the beneficiaries? is it the state or the tech companies or both? Are the outcomes long term or short term? Are the programs inclusive, : , global south, builds capacity, supports the environment

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    1. Question : Do you agree that tech diplomacy is a new phenomenon ?

      The conflation between technology and diplomacy is not new but aan immerging phenomenon.

      This relationship in its organic nascent form preceded the 2017 formalized merger between diplomatic representatives and tech companies. As highlighted by Garcia 2022, as technology advances so does the character of diplomacy. Therefore, Diplomats over the decades have used technology in its various forms to inform other entities of their respective perspectives

    2. Question : what is the relationship between tec =h companies and diplomats

      Diplomacy is traditionally an instrument used by sovereign states to develop and sustain peaceful and predictable relations among themselves. Oğurlu, E. (2019) Similarly Lee, D., & Hocking, B. (2015) defines diplomacy as the conduct of human affairs by peaceful means, employing techniques of persuasion and negotiation.

      Within this mantra is a perception that all states are equal, particularly as defined by the United Nations Charter which states in Article 18 no 1 that : “Each member of the General Assembly shall have one vote”.

      It should be noted that the ethos of tec companies are built on competition, efficiencies, profit, science and technology, innovation, research and development, whilst the Diplomat’s is to ensure consent acquired through amicable discussions with other State’s representatives.

      The relationship between tech companies and diplomats will vary according to the global strength of the state. For example, United States of America and the European Union have a very close relationship with tec companies. In some instances, they are able to discuss and establish amicable agreements on tech policies as it relates to the State, as seen with recent EU agreements with Google & Apple. At times this relationship can be unfavorable as seen by the current relationship between USA and Tic Tok.

    3. Question what are the key points from the two videos

      The key points relate to acknowledging that the global south was not included in the conversation and secondly the the urgent need for inclusion for countries of the Global south.

      Although a lot was said about Africa, it is also necessary to ensure that concerns of other countries of the South particularly the Small Islands Developing States are included. Why ? As SIDS have differing challenges e.g. effects of climate change, limited resources, etc. Therefore, if the global south is neglected, any governance structure that will be developed may not meet their needs as they were missing from the conversation. Despite the challenges, there are options available to include the global south. Leveraging brain gain and the use qualified diaspora members as active participants in the Tec diplomacy conversation.

      It is to be noted that the role of innovative leadership to lead the charge.

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  2. May 2024
    1. Even now, investors are lukewarm about such gambles. In recent weeks they have applauded Google’s capex plan

      ||VladaR||

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    1. told the World Economic Forum

      Do we have more info about this report?

    2. In a report released on April 5th, the Threat Intelligence team at Microsoft,

      Do we have this report?

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    1. only four of the 11 countermeasures were widely endorsed in the research literature:

      Only disinformation counter-measures that work.

    2. a technique known as “psychological inoculation” or “pre-bunking”.

      To put more information about this approach.

    3. the Global Engagement Centre, an agency in the us State Department.

      Another actor/initiative in this field.

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    1. The “news media bargaining code”, passed in 2021, obliged Google and Facebook to pay news outlets when search results or social-media feeds linked to their articles.

      News media bargaining code.

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    1. Meta banned access to some websites after Canadian government introduced law for big tech platforms to pay media publishers for content they use. Google agreed to pay. Meta refused. Meta agreed on the similar deal in Australia which they plan to leave (not to renew).

      What are a few lessons according to this article: * Single country even of the size of Canada cannot take on big platforms such as Meta. EU may be in position or a grop of countries. * The bigegst victims are small publishers * Canada is trying to use other laws to contain power of Meta such as anti-monopoly rulings (to be considered in our toolkit).

    2. In future, whenever Meta faces demands for payment, “they will just walk away,” Mr Doub said.

      Yes, if they handle single country. But, if there are a few countries it will be different.

    3. News Media Canada, which supports the new law, is attacking Meta on another front, lodging a complaint with Canada’s competition regulator, arguing that Meta’s link-blocking is an abuse of its dominant position.

      Anti-monopoly rulings as part of content policy.

    4. NewsGuard, a fact-checking organisation, found that “unreliable” sources accounted for 6.9% of engagement with news on Facebook in Canada in the 90 days after the blackout, compared with 2.2% in the 90 days before.

      Ban on google increased dis/mis-information.

    5. Energetic City has signed up 5,000 readers to an email newsletter, built a mobile app and put up posters around town with qr codes leading to its website. “We basically have to reteach our readers how to find the news,”

      Retraining users how to find news.

    6. The law promised “fairness in the Canadian digital-news marketplace”.

      Canadian law on digital media

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    1. How does the way the DSA addresses (and differentiates between) hate speech and harmful content impact Palestinian digital rights on major online platforms?

      Palestinian rights on platforms.

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    1. As a marketer, Jun was all about making quick decisions and fast iterations. Riley, however, followed the stringent protocols of their production team and was methodical and risk-averse.

      Different professional cultures.

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    1. Evaluating Language Model Capabilities

      How to evaluate LLM capabilities?

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    1. The Baader–Meinhof phenomenon is a cognitive bias referring to the tendency to notice something more often after noticing it for the first time, leading to the belief that it has an increased frequency of occurrence.

      ||minam|| Important congitive bias for dealing with AI.

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    1. Senior executives frequently are too far removed from day-to-day operations to understand what truly needs to change. Consequently, top-down solutions tend to be superficial or at least short-lived. Frontline managers, meanwhile, often lack the contextual understanding to challenge existing processes, and so trim around the edges rather than propose major changes. But midlevel executives tend to have enough experience to see the shortcomings in current operations—and aren’t so close to the ground that they get lost in the weeds.

      importance of middle management

    2. notably, a lack of urgency, insufficient leadership, limited vision, poor communication, and a shortage of “quick wins.”

      AI transformation needs these elements It requires 'quick win's.

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    1. Having a crisp mental model around a problem, being able to break it down into steps that are tractable, perfect first-principle thinking, sometimes being prepared (and able to) debate a stubborn AI — these are the skills that will make a great engineer in the future, and likely the same consideration applies to many job categories.

      Future set of skills

    2. the gold standard of learning — personalized tutoring — may be available to everyone.

      new educational approach

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    1. the “rules-based international order”,

      typical phrase

    2. Rarely have international courts been busier.

      Busy time for international courts.

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    1. could triple its share of American power consumption by 2030, to 7.5%.

      Use of energy by AI

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    1. According to one estimate, the global cost of cybercrime is estimated to top $23 trillion in 2027.

      This estimate seems to be the only estimate about the cost of cybercrime in the future. Predictions like these are tricky: a look into the methodology behind the number would be interesting.

    2. differing regulatory approaches to a range of policy issues

      Regulatory fragmentation.

    3. Yet the PRC government distorts markets to advantage PRC-based hardware, software, and services suppliers that compromise the security of the customer. By contrast, the United States seeks to provide the emerging and developing world with financially sound alternatives to unsustainable initiatives

      This sounds like those complicated films in which someone (usually the bad guy) explains his malign plan and actions at the end of the film, just in case the distracted audience got lost in the plot. In a nutshell: developing countries, do business with us, not China :)

    4. digital sovereignty and protectionism by blocking access to their markets, unduly preventing cross-border data flows, and preferencing domestic manufacturers and service providers, we continue international engagement to enhance interoperability, security, and market access.    

      Again, how does it fit with TikTiok's potential ban?

    5. . Left unaddressed, the digital divide not only imperils efforts to build a strong digital ecosystem, but also threatens to increase income inequality and instability in emerging economies.

      Nice recognition of the facts, albeit being about 10 years late.

    6. trusted cross-border data flows

      Interesting use of the expression. Although the US has supported DFFT, the notion of DFFT itself has been a compromise between a very liberal approach (US) and more sovereign and/or digital industralization approaches. Now the US itself seems to have moved to the center.

    7. The United States is mobilizing these resources

      I wonder if the US gov would be so at ease in referring to private companies as a resource to be mobilised by the State some years ago.

    8. Threats

      The section points out that the PRC, Russia, the DPRK, and Iran are the biggest cyber threats to the USA - this is in line with other US policy documents that deal with cybersecurity. As far as the descriptions of their activities go, I would say this document reiterates things we've seen and heard before.

    9. lack of U.S. leadership in international fora may allow adversaries to fill the void and shape the future of technology to the detriment of U.S. interests and values.

      The lesson learned the hard way with the 'New IP' case, for example.

    10. international partner digital and cyber capacity

      The carrot to developing countries.

    11. digital and data governance

      Again, data governance framed as a strategic/security issue

    12. The People’s Republic of China (PRC)

      Perhaps ||VladaR|| will remember, has China always been named the biggest threat? My line of thinking is that Russia and China held this spot interchangeably and that China is currently no. 1 because of Volt Typhoon's cyber operations, which have been discussed at some of the highest levels.

    13. comprehensive policy approach that uses the appropriate tools of diplomacy and international statecraft across the entire digital ecosystem

      I am not sure I am reading this correctly, but this sounds like strong presence from the State (at least at the level of strategic thinking) across all Internet layers and in sectors that have been private sector-led or technical. The US WSIS 2005 position has radically changed. This is very interesting as we move into WSIS+20 ||JovanK|| ||sorina||

    14. data security

      Securitization of data. ||MariliaM||

    15. use digital technologies safely to seek, receive, and impart information and ideas online as they participate in free, open, and informed societies

      This does not sound consistent with an imposed ban on TikTok.

    16. open, safe, and secure, that promotes inclusive growth, that fosters resilient and democratic societies, and that empowers all people.

      Some elements of this list give room to very subjective reasoning.

    17. shape the digital revolution at every level of the technology “stack”

      Does it mean to counter the presence of non-like-minded countries as main providers in layers of the stack? What does it mean in terms of value chains, technological interoperability? With regards to China, does it confirm continued move towards de-coupling despite the change in rhetoric?

    18. more action-oriented discussions at the UN on international security issues in cyberspace

      ||VladaR|| Of relevance for Geneva dialogue.

    19. In an effort to increase digital solidarity in the realm of foreign assistance, USAID launched the Donor Principles for Human Rights in the Digital Age in partnership with Canada’s International Development Research Centre (IDRC),

      ||StephanieBP|| This is of relevance for SDC.

    20. action-oriented discussions

      ||VladaR|| this is of relevance for Geneva Dialogue.

    21. Satellite Communication Networks

      ||sorina|| Something of interest for you

    22. The Future of AI Technologies Governance

      ||sorina||||MariliaM|| A good news is that US is focusing on short-term risks.

    23. Challenges of the Digital Economy

      ||MariliaM|| Hi Marilia, could you check how US strategy covers digital economy?

    24. Cyber Attacks and National Security Threats

      ||VladaR||||AndrijanaG|| Could you analyse this section on cyberseucirty. You can annotate

    25. The rapid growth of AI technology, however, comes with the significant risk that its use may exacerbate inequality and economic instability, stifle competition, cause consumer harm, aggravate discrimination and bias, invade privacy, enhance malicious cyber activity, and improve authoritarian capabilities for surveillance and repression. AI will challenge how we compensate for the uses of intellectual property as well as authenticate, label, or detect synthetic content. AI may also require workforce adaptations across economies; the rising energy demands of high-end AI chips and data centers could become a significant barrier to developing local capabilities.

      ||sorina|| Good summary of AI governance issues.

    26. Digital solidarity is a willingness to work together on shared goals, to help partners build capacity, and to provide mutual support.[1] Digital solidarity recognizes that all who use digital technologies in a rights-respecting manner are more secure, resilient, self-determining, and prosperous when we work together to shape the international environment and innovate at the technological edge. Central to the tenets of digital solidarity are efforts to support allies and partners, especially emerging economies, to fully seize the opportunities presented by new technologies and sustainably pursue their economic and development goals. Digital solidarity aligns U.S. national interests with those of our international partners through compatible approaches to technology governance, sustains strong partnerships with civil society and the private sector, and embraces cybersecurity resilience built on a diversity of products and services made by trusted technology vendors. It highlights the mutual support that the United States and its partners offer one another to counter and respond to malicious cyber operations, cybercrime, and other digital harms, and promotes cooperative efforts among states and civic actors to defend and advance human rights. In addition, the concept of digital solidarity rests on efforts to build digital and cyber capacity so that partners are not only better able to build a defensible and resilient digital ecosystem over the long term but are also able to respond and recover quickly when incidents that threaten security, safety, and rights happen. The actions and efforts of this strategy are intended to demonstrate and build digital solidarity with partners across the globe.

      Definition of digital solidirity

    27. the October 2022 National Security Strategy (NSS)

      Basis is national security approach

    28. working together to offer mutual assistance to the victims of malicious cyber activity and other digital harms; assist partners – especially emerging economies – in deploying safe, secure, resilient, and sustainable technologies to advance their development goals; and builds strong and inclusive innovation economies that can shape our economic and technological future.

      What is digital solidarity?

    29. to build digital solidarity

      New concept in global lingo ||sorina|| ||Pavlina|| ||VladaR|| ||StephanieBP||

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    1. a subtle difference in their meaning

      Difference between disinformation and misinfomration: dis - intentionally, mis-unintationally.

    2. The vocabulary of disinformation

      A good dictionary of disinformation.

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    1. First is “placement”, or the initial posting of the lie.

      Three phases of placement of fake news.

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    1. Please read this Cookie Policy carefully as it contains important information on who we are and how we use

      TEST

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  3. Apr 2024
    1. the Israeli government is split.

      ||sorina|| follows on our discusion

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    1. Excellent statistics on development assistance.

    2. AidData

      ||minam|| Another relevant data.

    3. “true multilateralism” where “universal security” replaced “universal values”

      ||VladaR|| Core changes in multilateral language.

    4. It has built an index of states’ power from 1960 to 2022.

      To be consulted by our data team. ||minam||

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    1. It is also claimed that the IDF would be willing to risk killing 15-20 civilians in order to strike a Hamas fighter. For Hamas battalion or brigade commanders, that number rose to more than 100 civilians.

      Tolerable number of humans killed.

    2. But in 2016 Heather Roff and Richard Moyes, then writing for Article 36, a non-profit focused on the issue, cautioned that a person “simply pressing a ‘fire’ button in response to indications from a computer, without cognitive clarity or awareness”, does not meaningfully qualify as “human control”.

      ||VladaR|| Critical aspect for 'human control'

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    1. Detailed summary of AI and intellectual property rights. ||Jovan||

    2. the eu ’s directive on digital copyright was passed in 2019, when generative AI was not a thing. “There is no way the Europeans would pass [such a directive] today,” says Mr Sag.

      Why not?

    3. Tennessee last month passed the Ensuring Likeness Voice and Image Security ( ELVIS ) Act, banning unauthorised deepfakes in the state.

      ||Jovan|| about deepfakes

    4. A number of news publishers have reached a similar conclusion

      Here are various 'Ask approaches'.

    5. A survey of media executives in 56 countries by the Reuters Institute found that 48% expected there to be “very little” money from AI licensing deals.

      Pessimistic about licencing deals

    6. Shutterstock, a photo library, has licensed its archive to both Open AI and Meta, the social-media empire that is pouring resources into AI . Reddit and Tumblr, online forums, are reportedly licensing their content to AI firms as well.

      Position of different cmpanies.

    7. Partners so far include the Associated Press, Axel Springer (owner of Bild and Politico), Le Monde and Spain’s Prisa Media.

      Deals between OpenAI and media houses.

    8. Outside America, the legal climate is mostly harsher for tech firms.

      ||Jovan|| Survey of copyright law in various jurisdicitons.

    9. The lawyering is now happening.

      ||Jovan|| Major court cases.

    10. tech firms are again seeking forgiveness rather than permission

      Classical approach

    11. Common Crawl,

      Company that scraps the Internet.

    12. the model learns by trial and error how tokens are normally combined.

      ||Jovan|| Good point how AI learns.

    13. “They have created an amazing edifice that’s built on a foundation of sand.”

      Good point

    14. AI s are trained on vast quantities of human-made work

      ||Andrej|| Please follow-up on this. It is relevant for our course for Kuwait and their linguistical projects.

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    1. In 2022 he proposed a framework called “Joint Embedding Predictive Architecture” ( JEPA ),

      ||JovanNj||||anjadjATdiplomacy.edu|| What is this technology about?

    2. Andrej Karpathy, a researcher formerly at Open AI , explained in a recent talk that current LLM s are only capable of “system 1” thinking. In humans, this is the automatic mode of thought involved in snap decisions. In contrast, “system 2” thinking is slower, more conscious and involves iteration.

      ||Jovan|| Is not it opposite of AI having access to 'system 2'

    3. Since 2017 most AI models have used a type of neural-network architecture known as a transformer (the “ T ” in GPT ), which allowed them to establish relationships between bits of data that are far apart within a data set.

      ||Jovan|| Transformes is linking data which are far apart within a data set.

    4. When the LLM is in its learning phase, it compares its predictions against the version of reality available in its training data. If these diverge, the algorithm makes small tweaks to each layer of the network to improve future predictions. That makes it computationally intensive and incremental.

      ||Jovan|| How AI is learning.

    5. Companies like Scale AI and Surge AI have built large networks of people to generate and annotate data, including P h D researchers solving problems in maths or biology. One executive at a leading AI startup estimates this is costing AI labs hundreds of millions of dollars per year.

      ||Jovan|| Check these companies as interesting data model for annotations.

    6. The main points from this article - start of Llama3 - high-quality textual data will run dry from the Internet in 2026 - development of 'multimodal' capabilities. - SaleAI and SurgeAI are doing annotations - life is more compelx from clear-cut decisions.

    7. Epoch AI , a research outfit, estimates the well of high-quality textual data on the public internet will run dry by 2026.

      Need for smart data.

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    1. flow of information and energy are critical for global economy. In this field there are battles between China and USA. this battle will affect global economy for 1.2% of globagl GDP.

      China leads in EVs and green eocnomy, while it is weak in chipmaking. US export control seems to slow.

      Next battle will be in quantum and sensing technologies.

      A Summary: The ongoing tech wars between the United States and China, which began during the Trump administration and continue under Joe Biden, are having significant global implications. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) estimates that the elimination of high-tech trade between the two countries could cost as much as $1 trillion annually, equivalent to 1.2% of global GDP. The battles are primarily taking place in the chipmaking and green technology sectors.

      The US is actively encouraging the expansion of chip production within its borders, providing subsidies to companies like Taiwan's TSMC and South Korea's Samsung. It also maintains high tariffs on Chinese solar panels and electric vehicles (EVs). China, on the other hand, has become a global leader in green technology with companies like Longi, CATL, and BYD, but it faces obstacles in the chipmaking industry due to US restrictions on chipmaking technology imports.

      While the focus has recently been on app-related disputes, such as pressuring Chinese owners to sell platforms and removing certain apps from app stores, the real battle lies in the control of chipmaking and energy technologies. The risks and consequences of this tech war are significant, including a potential loss of focus on critical areas, strained relationships with Japan and Europe, slower economic growth, and the potential fragmentation of global information and energy-technology industries.

      The Biden administration has followed a relatively predictable approach to China and technology, but a more aggressive campaign by the Trump administration could lead to worse outcomes for all parties involved. It is crucial to monitor the shifting dynamics of the tech wars, the impact on chipmaking and green technology sectors, and the potential consequences on the global economic landscape.

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    1. The Senate requested Tik-Tok to be sold by ByteDance. China's government, who is shareholder by ByteDance, refused to seel shares.

      TikTok will challenge the Senate's decisions in the court on the basis of the First Amendment and freedon of spreech.

      The result of this challenge will have two major impacts: - content governance of other social media platforms; - follow-up by other countries who are likely to follow US example as, for example, Europe did in the case of Huawei and chip-export.

      ||Jovan||

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    1. This paper presents Climinator, a novel AI-based tool designed to automate the fact-checking of climate change claims. Utilizing an array of Large Language Models (LLMs) informed by authoritative sources like the IPCC reports and peer-reviewed scientific literature, Climinator employs an innovative Mediator-Advocate framework.

      ||JovanK|| ||JovanNj||

      This is an AI model that ChatClimate.ai and WMO have collaborated on building. The Climinator uses a 'mediator-advocate' framework that is quite innovative. I have doubts about the efficacy of this framework, but I thought it could be something of inspiration to the AI lab if we ever want to build an array of models capable of debating with each other and coming to a conclusion.

      Might be an interesting framework for us to try out, for example, in the following scenario: Our moderator is a diplomatic-text-finetuned LLM; our advocate 1 is an LLM based on GDC-related documents (via RAG) and our advocate 2 is an LLM fed with real-life expert interactions during our events (via RAG or finetuning). Then, we can give an overall prompt to the moderator to ask advocate 1 and 2 to find consensus on a GDC draft.||sorina||

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    1. Op-ed Writing: Tips and Tricks

      Tips for op-ed writing

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    1. The Israeli-Palestinian publication +972 Magazine and Hebrew-language media outlet Local Call reported recently that the Israeli army was isolating and identifying thousands of Palestinians as potential bombing targets using an AI-assisted targeting system called Lavender.

      Source

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    1. Nigerian officials are kicking off legal proceedings against Binance and two of its senior executives, accusing them of money laundering and tax evasion.

      ||ArvinKamberi|| Arvine evo teksta o Binance i Nigeriji.

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  4. Mar 2024
    1. Meta’s recent decision to shut down Facebook News, which was a source of revenues for many content providers, as potentially hurting the economics of the news industry, thus lowering the quality of journalism and, by extension, undermining the political process.

      Attack on journalism

    2. TTD has rolled out an alternative open-source technology, known as Unified ID 2.0 ( UID 2), that it hopes will improve on cookies as an industry standard.

      Highly relevant standard.

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    1. The TechPlomacy Approach

      Description of Techplomacy

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    1. ||Jovan|| Here is a good summary of the current developments in cryptocurrency. It is a bit PR, but it provides a useful overall summary. A few questions for us: - Does DW covers these developments? - Is there anything we can do to follow systematically this field as WSJ indicates or Atlantic Council presents effectively https://www.atlanticcouncil.org/cbdctracker/

      Soruce of article: https://deloitte.wsj.com/riskandcompliance/decentralized-finance-may-transform-how-money-is-managed-b443f30e?mod=Deloitte_riskcomp_wsjarticle10_eNL_SSFY24

    2. Central Bank Digital Currency Tracker – Atlantic Council
    3. regulatory uncertainties

      Key aspects.

    4. With tokenization and programmable money, transactions can be executed instantly, anytime, and from anywhere.

      What about national regulations?

    5. It could significantly enhance payroll processes, providing a way to compensate people on a more ongoing or recurring basis, such as per job for gig workers or per day for salaried workers.

      Payment for micro-activites.

    6. These assets can include securities, loans, public and private funds, hedge funds and money markets, private equity, environmental credits, real estate, commodities, ownership rights, voting rights, and content licensing.

      What can be tokenized?

    7. The Internal Revenue Service has also developed guidance on digital assets, treating them as property for federal tax purposes.

      It is critical that cryptoassets can be taxed.

    8. 130 jurisdictions globally are either launching, piloting, developing, or researching central bank digital currencies (CBDCs),

      ||ArvinKamberi||||minam|| This could be an intteresting map.