1. Last 7 days
    1. Parler

      ||JovanK|| I read about this new app replacing Parler in Serbian newspaper the other day, here's a link about it I found online: https://www.nytimes.com/2021/01/13/technology/telegram-signal-apps-big-tech.html

      Interestingly enough, the Telegram app comes from Russia, so I'm still a bit doubtful as to whether it's as secure and user-controlled as advertised:) https://www.quora.com/Why-has-the-Telegram-Messenger-become-so-popular

    2. efforts to police

      ||JovanK|| ||GingerP|| ||VladaR|| Ordnung und Disziplin?:) I might be wrong, but I don't recalling seeing this being discussed in lecture texts used in the IG-related courses. Seeing how Ginger and Jovan are now working on updating the Intro to IG course material, I think this may deserve special attention? I also apologise in advance if this was being discussed somewhere without me taking notice.:)

    3. This is the reason why Angela Merkel is the best politician of the first 2 decades of our century. To be precise, she is real statesman or to be more precise stateswomen.

      ||Jovan||

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    1. the legitimacy of any public policy that could require a firm to locate computing facilities in a member state is self-judging. In other words, anything can be deemed legitimate if a party says so.

      Exceptions to the general provision contrary to localization in RCEP are self-judging (different from CPTPP).

    2. The RCEP and the CPTPP diverge on provisions covering the location of computing facilities, cross-border transfer of information by electronic means, source code and dispute settlement. In all these cases, the RCEP’s chapter 12 is much weaker than the CPTPP’s chapter 14, to the point of rendering the provisions meaningless in terms of liberalizing cross-border digital trade and data flows. The RCEP’s language is such that it allows member states to impose whatever national regulatory restrictions they wish, as long as they are applied in a non-discriminatory way (are applied equally to domestic and foreign businesses).

      Comparison between RCEP and CPTPP on controversial digital issues, such as data flows and source code

    3. So, how does RCEP’s chapter 12 compare with the CPTPP’s chapter 14?

      General comparison between RCEP and CPTPP

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    1. RCEP will connect about 30% of the world’s people and output
    2. Looking ahead, one U.S. option is to continue FOIP

      Analsys of strategic options for the Biden administration

    3. Trump administration’s Asia policies focused on a new Free and Open Indo-Pacific (FOIP) vision

      Trump's vision for engagement in Asia. Focused on security, trade secondary.

    4. Northeast Asia

      Northeast Asia Countries in RCEP: Japan, South Korea and China

    5. Southeast Asia

      Countries: Brunei, Burma (Myanmar), Cambodia, Timor-Leste, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam

    6. Its intellectual property rules add little to what many members have in place, and the agreement says nothing at all about labor, the environment, or state-owned enterprises — all key chapters in the CPTPP.

      Differences between RCEP and CPTPP

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    1. Video games have replaced music as the most important aspect of youth culture

      Online games as digital policy issue

      ||Jovan||

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    1. Le développement de l’accès à un Internet abordable, ouvert et sûr figure au nombre des principaux objectifs poursuivis par la France dans le cadre du plan « Développement et Numérique »

      capacity development

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    1. Digital Watch newsletter - Issue 22 - June 2017

      are the other newsletters missing? How many are missing? ||JovanK|| ||StephanieBP||

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    1. This document outlines the main develpments in natural language processing which is in the core of our AI approach.

      This text could be useful for bridging our language and AI activities via concept of contextual meaning.

      Diplomacy is an area with - most likely - most layered and contextual meaning. If we manage to move ahead by combining our language research with AI, we may push frontier in the NLP further.

      There are also features that relate to use of AI in two other areas:

      • summarising texts and tagging in DW
      • help desk in ConfTech

      We will brainstorm about ways how we can make these potentials operational.

      ||Jovan||

    2. Market Intelligence Monitoring

      This trend will be used for DW for automatically extracting updates and following trends (barometer)

    3. between similarity and relatedness,

      key aspect.

    4. Combining Supervised & Unsupervised Methods

      This is our approach for 'augmented intelligence'.

    5. Automation In NLP

      to follow closely

      ||Jovan||||JovanNj||

    6. One can expect the integration of NLP tools with help desk softwares to perform tasks such as tagging and routing of customer support requests, thereby requiring human intervention in just higher-value tasks.

      Can we use anything of this type for our ConfTech Help Desk?

    7. The Turing multilingual language model incorporates Information-Theoretic Framework for Cross-Lingual Language Model Pre-Training for language understanding and generation for representing 94 languages in the same vector space. 

      What exists here?

    8. However, NLP still struggles with conflation deficiency, which is the inability to discriminate between different meanings of a word. This also extends to the contextual meaning of words and sentences and also identifying sarcasm or ironic statements. Another challenge that NLP currently faces is for analysing statements with multiple meanings, often contradictory. 

      This will be crticial for diplomacy.

      ||JovanNj|| what is realistic in this field to be expected soon. You may think of one presentation for our language team, faculty on 'reality' and 'myth' in discovering hidden text meaning in AI. Can AI read between lines?

      ||Jovan||

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  2. Jan 2021
    1. the Council will be meeting once again in its chamber, sitting at the horseshoe table, with Plexiglas-and-wood dividers between each of the 15 members and their delegations.

      council back to face-to-face meetings, apart from VTC

      -> update research

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    1. The technology and infrastructure basket includes three areas that are concerned with the core functionality of the Internet. These are:

      ||AndrijanaG|| can we delete this text? I sorted it out on the other pages since there was no text only hyperlinks and textboxes. ||JovanK||

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    1. We engage in business relations online on a daily basis. In some of these transactions, the commercial aspect is clear, such as buying products in an e-commerce platform, renting storage space from a cloud service provider, or using a ride-hailing service as a means of transportation, such as Uber or Lyft. In these cases, a financial payment is made by the customer. In other cases, the commercial aspect is harder to identify. Several companies provide services to Internet users without apparent financial compensation; such as search engines, many e-mail providers, social media platforms, and some apps. In this business model, user data is the core economic resource, and companies generate most of their income from selling information about user preferences to advertisers.

      suggestion to shorten this paragraph in bold. ||AndrijanaG||

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    1. An overview of t

      ||AndrijanaG|| can you please remove the bullet points and turn it into a coherent text? Nenad mentioned that it becomes problematic for the viewers (it also stand outs from the rest where we have coherent text). ||JovanK||

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    1. Beyond this phase, the consortium will extend this effort and expound the Veritas methodology for other FEAT principles to additional use-cases in financial services, such as insurance

      This is relevant for my discussion with JovanNj

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    1. Democratic politics is binary.

      strange?

    2. Markovian
    3. is essential in a political context that is increasingly “on demand” and “just in time” and less and less “always on”, in which the management of the attention of the civil society must be based on the forward-looking interest in the proposing of good and relevant ideas, and not on alarmism, emergency, or recurrent crises. 

      do not understand

    4. Reflection is good when it is rational in its reasoning, informed about facts, aware of its fallibility, tolerant of different opinions, and open to constructive dialogue.

      nice quote

    5. Following a relational and not “substantial” approach, arguing that good politics takes care of the prosperity of the whole society, of all the people who belong to it, and of public and common goods (including natural and artificial environments), means ensuring that politics is reticular.

      Good proposal, but it is not clear why this claim is relational and not 'substantial'.

    6. This is an argument in favour of a mixed electoral system, with some balance between majoritarian and proportional features, to reach the right level of granularity.

      Not sure, it is correct. It mixes electon of parliamentarians with granuality of issues.

    7. voters choose between options (as in a restaurant menu), but do not decide between alternatives (which restaurant to go to).

      Nice metaphor.

    8. Governance is the activity of the government.

      Wrong! Governance is not only done by governments. Governance exists in business and civil society as well

    9. in this article I argued that tolerance and justice have this logical order (tolerance has priority over justice), even if they are co-necessary.

      Old dilemma in negotatons.... do we need JUST peace (ethics) or JUST A peace (deal that ends conflicts - tolerance)

    10. who interact, coordinate, and change.

      Often used as billard ball metahore in internatoinal relations https://www.iapss.org/2013/11/17/five-ridiculously-overused-political-science-metaphors/

    11. infraethics

      From the text, I could not understand what is infraethics in sense that it is different from just ethics.

    12. both an individual human project as a meta-project for individual projects, and a social human project, for group projects—using the right infraethics to organise itself and realise it.

      It is either so simpel that it does not require this long article (individual vs society) or author did not manage to explain what it is about.

    13. which is mature in terms of its socio-cultural expectations

      is it? I do not know what 'socio-cultural expectations' mean exactly. But, I am not sure that society in which individuals exchagne Tweeter is mature in any social or cultural context. Current polarisation of modern societies shows that they are immature.

    14. a science of relations

      There are many sociological attempts to analyse relations including school of interactionist. It is pity that author is not building on this rich thinking legacy https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interactionism

    15. We have seen that political thought should move from a “substantial” to a “relational” approach, from mechanisms to networks.

      Politics has been always relational. I still do not understand this distinction in author's methodology.

    16. when politicians talk about “infrastructure” nowadays, they often have to deal not so much with bits and atoms, but rather with the infraethics and the values it supports.

      Not sure. Politicans speak about cables, roads, pipelines when they speak about infrastructure.

      Shold they speak about socio-culturla infrastructure? Yes, they should. But, it is not what they do today.

    17. This is why a balance between security and privacy, for example, is so difficult to achieve, unless we clarify first whether we are dealing with a tension within ethics (security and privacy as moral rights, i.e., both understood as “water” in the earlier analogy), within infraethics (both are understood as not-yet-ethical facilitators, i.e. as part of the pipework), or between infraethics (security intended as facilitator or “pipe”) and ethics (privacy intended as a value, or “water”), as I suspect to be the case.

      Finaly some concrete reference. But, again, author parashuts analogies without any explanation.

      Follow-up: need to unpack this paragraph. There may be some useful reflections.

    18. A multiagent system like a whole society needs its own organisation and governance, precisely because it is not an old Aristotelian–Newtonian cuckoo clock.

      ?

    19. Yet the truth is that without an infraethics to begin with (i.e. internal controls), and then the issuing of good governance that supports it (i.e. external controls), not enough moral goodness could ever be achieved individually.

      It contradicts above assumption that infraethics (whatever it is) should not be about individual (moral) judgements.

    20. if men were angels they would need no government, but men (sometimes) are angels, and so (sometimes) they do not need government.

      again false thinking based on ethics (angles) not on the need to manage complex system (society) in which good interntoins can lead to conflicts of intersests and need for governmetns to intervene and solve conflictingsituatins over perceptions, resources, etc.

    21. he might be read as saying that, if all men were angels we would still need driving rules to coordinate driving behaviours, but no police to enforce them.

      It assumes that human society (or angel society) is only complicated and it can be governed by rules.

      But human society (I guess 'angels' as well) is complex. Thus rules cannot anticipate all conflicts and potential problems. Thus, conflicts will always exist triggered by simply complex nature of human society - not necessarily bad intentions of humans or angles for the sake of author's argument.

    22. any government, or any infraethics,

      infraethics = government?

    23. If angels were to govern men, neither external nor internal controls on government would be necessary

      It is reflect Platon's views of disinterested philosophers-rulers who would be so smart and so fair (no marriage and no family and personal interest) that they would run society like angles.

    24. Angels would still need an infraethics to organise a party, or to push-start a car.

      yes, it is society and its mechanisms ranging from family via community to national state.

      Ethics helps running society. But, what infraethics has to deal with?

    25. There is a moral goodness that is entirely social and does not emerge merely from individual moral goodness.

      Yes, it is purpose of living together. Ethics, together with politics, faciltiates this 'common good'.

    26. He was partly mistaken because he had a merely negative anthropology in mind— the one so well-articulated by Thomas Hobbes in his Leviathan and De Cive (“homo homini lupus”) and never revised nor criticised by John Locke—and an atomistic view of society as a mere aggregate of individuals (recall the Aristotelian–Newtonian Ur-philosophy)

      Methodologically speaking, it is amazing how author jumps into meta-moves with only partial connection. A lot of of non sequitur in the article. This paragraph is important because Medison's view is only partially informed by Hobbes's anthropoligical scepticism ('people are bad').

      It is even less relevant to 'atomic view of society'. I do not see any linkage here.

    27. Thus, James Madison was partly (more on this specification below) mistaken when he famously wrote that

      it is true. Governments (and politics) is about managing differencies in society. Angles can be good, but by nature of their differencies they would enter into conflicting situations. One caveat: it would not apply if all angles are equal in terms of values, interests, positions.

      It is abstract discussion but it gets to the core point that een if you exclude ethical aspects, politics is needed to manage inevitable differencies in interests, cultures and views. It is in the essence of diplomacy as well.

    28. So, it is easy to mistake the infraethical for the ethical because, whatever helps goodness to flourish or evil to take root, it partakes of their nature.

      why do you call it 'infraethics' if it is not about ethics.

    29. the knife that can save a life or murder someone.

      the knife does not have ethics. Person who designs knife or use it has certain ethics. On design level another question is if knife is used for designed purpose (e.g. to cut meet) or to kill another person.

      But, the fundamental question is that you cannot discuss ethics of entiteis without conciousness (knives)

    30. is never ethically neutral, but always embeds some values, whether implicitly or implicitly.

      true!

    31. rather the not-yet-ethical framework that can facilitate or hinder evaluations, decisions, actions, or situations, which are then moral or immoral.

      I do not undertand this sentence. any help?

    32. we are dealing with moral or immoral actions and not- yet-ethical facilitators of such moral or immoral actions.

      How it can be done. Back to basics. Moral shapes individual action. Ethics is external set of princples agreed by society or community. Why individual action (moral) should not be facilitated by ethics.

      Why it is wrong that individual (moral) does not follow 10 commandements or any other ethical codex (etics).

    33. This means that they may be referring to the collapse of a substratum of default, accepted ways of living together in terms of economic, political and social conditions, such as the rule of law, respect for civil rights, a sense of political community, civilised dialogue among differently-minded people, ways to reach peaceful resolutions of tensions, and so forth.

      it is true that it is the more important aspect of 'state infrastructure' than making - for example - sure that roads are fixed. You can fix road if society functions on cultural and societal levels.

    34. infraethics.

      Let us see what it is about....

    35. bits rather than atoms

      For scientific purpose one has to be careful in using this terminology. Bits consists of eletrons carrying negative or positive signals ('1' and '0'). Atoms consist of protons, electrons, and neutrons.

      Most likely, author tried to make distinction between digital (electronic) and material reality (physical). Even in this case, he is not correct that society increasingly depends on bits. It depends on both. We are and we will remain physical beings leaving in physical enviornment.

    36. the other still to be built, which can also make social sense of the way we live together, as a community.

      Why we need to build it? HIstory of humanity is history of cummanities. The main problem is how to stop errosion of long tradition of people leaving together and creating their social institutions from families via communiteis to states.

    37. the liberal meta-project that favours individual projects,

      what about ethics of these projects? Is individual interest above anything else as it is currently happening.

    38. first

      why this sequence? Ethical and political are in constant interplay.

    39. a mature information society

      what is a mature information society?

    40. And only a secular society can lack any interest in proselytism, and not fall into the temptation of imposing a specific vision (religious or otherwise) of the human project at the expense of other visions, or a specific evaluation of the world as comprising “we” and “they” (religious divide).

      Secular ideologies can be very proselytic. Author has presumption that secular societies are ethically neutral. It is very risky presumption which failed many societies during communist era. 'We' and 'they' logic is very strong in many secular societies around identity issues (nations, sexual oreintation, etc.). Religion can generate some divisions but it is far from being the main generator of divisions at least in the western democracies.

    41. Only a secular society can be truly tolerant, that is, sincerely respectful and supportive of the great variety of individual human projects.

      It is not true. Communist secular society was not - to put it mildly - very tolerant towards opposing views. Many religions were tolerant.

    42. it must be an ethics of the interests of all the “patient” nodes (those who receive the effects of political action),

      Highly relevant!

    43. the human project for the digital age and for a mature information society must include the “silent world”: the marginalized, the disadvantaged, the weak, the oppressed, the past generations to be respected, and the future ones to be facilitated, the environment (natural and artificial), and that semantic capital formed by culture and memory.

      Great notion. So far, digital world has not been particularly successful in including 'missing actors'.

    44. take left vs. right seriously, but will concentrate on centrist alternatives that have more or less successful strategies to approach the human project.

      it is not what is happening in our society. Pragmatic solutions are in crisis. Ideologies are emerging mainly around identity issues.

    45. an ethical-centric way, and not in an ideological way of left or right

      All ideologies and for the sake of this argument religions have etical component. How can you separate ideology from ethics?

    46. The centre does not promote or lead “political struggle”, but creates political convergence; connects, does not disconnect; it does not quarrel, it argues.

      Liberalism is close to tis definition. But, what we are currently seeing in the world is not political convergence. There is enormous polarisation because of use of 'centris approach' as 'cover' for clear political interest. Demasking of this approach triggered radical reactions from extremes on the left and right sides of political spectrums.

      It boils down to the simple notion that politics is about the interests. Once one enters political space, it starts promoting certain interests either through conflict or negotiations or compromise. But 'centrist' policy does not replace political and economic intersests.

    47. the end is always that of equilibrium and of a collaborative reconciliation of interests, rather than the imbalance of the confrontation of parts, in a zero-sum game.

      Is it the case? Defining 'good' or 'bad' in ethics is a zero-sum game. Ethics is by definition binary.

    48. good politics is the properly regulated evolution of community cooperation.

      it is getting confusing. Good politics does not need to be comunity cooperaiton. it can be also resolving conflicts, supporting public goods, etc.

    49. community activism can somehow compensate for the absence of a social human project

      still not clear how author uses terms such as 'community activism' and 'a social human project'.

    50. The social project, whatever it is, is no longer part of the political project. Quite the opposite, it often distances itself from the political project in an anti-political way, falling into the negative dialectic described in the introduction.

      It is is historical process which started at the point when 'sociology' is created as science of society out of overall philosohy which provided framework for political thinking about society.

    51. The liberal and postmodern meta-project is incomplete because it focuses only on the interests and hopes of the individual, or at most of the person, including the legal person (think of corporate taxation), but does not provide, nor does it mean to provide, programmatically, an indicative framework on the kind of society that one would like to build together, and for which coordination of the efforts of many

      it is not true. The fact that liberal approach focuses on individuals does not mean that it does not have 'an indicative framework on the kind of society that one would like to build together'.

      The liberal and postmodern theories want to build society with:

      • central role of individuals
      • low role of state (only to provide legal framework and protect rights)
      • free market
      • etc.
    52. individuals get together, voluntarily or not, on the basis of a shared purpose—the human project—be this positive (as in Plato or Rousseau), in order to achieve a higher degree of trust, coordination, and collaboration; or negative (as in Hobbes or Kant), in order to achieve a lower degree of distrust, conflict, and insecurity.

      Nicely said

    53. There must be inter-temporal links that give meaning to paths, trajectories, expectations, individual and social human projects (more on this later), and so on.

      nice sentence.

    54. But a fabric does not necessarily have to be “woven” like a tapestry, it can also be knitted (a word that comes from “knot”, which clearly relates to network), like a blanket.

      ||GingerP|| I need your help here. You always correct me of using 'knitting' metaphore.

    55. And intergenerational relations are no longer relations between lego-like Aristotelian– Newtonian persons, but relational ties between node-like persons, something the vocabulary of politics describes as “social fabric”, a crucial concept on which we need to pause for a moment.

      I do not get it. Intergenerational realtions are neither Aristotelian nor Newtonian nor 'relational'. They are just sequence in time of people who lived on the earth with their cultural and societal complexity.

      I lost him here.

    56. More Europe also means having the courage to abandon the twentieth-century geographical space, on which the EU was founded, to adopt a relational spatiality, making possible the exclusion of European countries that repeatedly deny the values of the EU, because geography is no longer sufficient, and the inclusion among its members also of countries not belonging to the continent, but which respect and promote its values, because geography is no longer necessary.

      Mix too many things - geogrpahy, values, etc. Need better analysis.

    57. with the arrival of the Internet, the space of politics (a relational and therefore logical space) no longer overlaps, indistinguishably, with the space of geography (a “substantial” and therefore physical space) of national sovereignty

      typical naive trap of 'info-philosphers'.

    58. it is the social network that today is making possible and less traumatic the transition

      really? What are social networks that provide this transition? This transition is exactly traumatic because there are no social networks which have been dismantled last 3 decades during hyper-individualism.

    59. in a “relation-oriented” and not “thing-oriented” policy, it is no longer the quantifiable amount of “performance” of things that is the main parameter of evaluation, but the degree of solidity and resilience of the relations that constitute things and bind them together, citizens included.

      Crucial but not clear

    60. Europe needs good ideas for a political government strategy that values and promotes its potential at best, not so much as a post-industrial society, but as a mature information society. The Union is emerging from a long period of crisis, at least as regards the economy, if not also the social aspects (especially in terms of the fracture of the social pact, even intergenerational, reduction and impoverishment of the middle class, less social mobility, and polarisation of opportunities that are not fairly equal), political (especially in terms of crisis of trust in institutions, populism, and personalization of politics), and cultural (national identity, immigration, role of Europe in a globalised world). In this delicate phase of recovery, the point is not being original at all costs, or imitating the US or China or other political realities, but recognizing and taking full advantage of the specific strengths of the many Europes that the EU contains, while reducing their weaknesses, and above all identifying the obstacles that do not allow these two operations. In light of this strategy, the wish is that the following naïve ideas, offered to improve policy, will be of some help.

      Powerful paragraph. Can Europe find this strength?

    61. to unite green environmental policies (green economy and sharing economy) with blue digital policies (service economy), in favour of an economy of experience, that is, centred on the quality of relationships and processes, and not so much of consumption, that is, not so much centred on things and their properties

      It is essential for our approach of linking nature and digital. Let us develop more on this notion.

      ||TerezaHorejsova||||kat_hone||||Katarina_An||||NatasaPerucica||||Jovan||

    62. favouring a strategic not a tactical timing, that is, an approach that does not simply react to the news of the political market.

      It is probably only solution for stabilising political space.

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    1. Would be good to include some image here. The text is rather long and looks tired. ||AndrijanaG|| ||Jovan||

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    1. Indeed worth reading, even if I found Joan's comments to be more valuable than the essay itself.

    2. continuing over-investment in military capabilities, a militarized permanent bureaucracy entrapped in an outmoded political imagination with a disposition that exaggerates security threats and under-invests in domestic infrastructure and social protection of its citizenry;

      As Eisenhower prophetically saw, the military-industrial complex has far too much power. And it has been made worse by the rise of data imperialism.

    3. a dilemma no recent American president has faced.

      Not true. All Présidents since at least Kennedy have faced this dilemma. But most chose to ignore it, creating the conditions leading to Trump. As a knowledgeable obserser puts the matter, if the Democrats continue to ignore the legitimate grievances of the Trump supporters, the next time they will elect someone who is not a clown.

    4. A very interesting summary of the global developments after Biden's victory. A few highlights:

      • most likely continuation of neoliberal globalisation with some accommodation for China.
      • USA is not very likely to shift its focus on military investment and conduct redirection of resources and narratives towards other sectors of society.
      • Technology is likely to be an area of the major tensions between China and USA

      ||Jovan||

    5. The present ascendant political actor that perceived a rising challenge from below is likely to provoke war rather than give way, which according to Allison is what has almost happened throughout world history.

      Not so optimistic develpment.

    6. China is no longer dependent on Silicon Valley and Europe for technological progress, but the West, including the United States, may increasingly look to China for the latest technological innovations. Undoubtedly, part of the rising tension with China reflects the threatening reality that the country has graduated from its non-threatening role as ‘the factory of the world’ to becoming dominant on some of the most dynamic technological frontiers, which is a symbolic as well as a substantive blow to America’s reputation and leadership credentials, and possibly even to its dominance with respect to innovations in military technology.

      This dynamics will shape digital governance. Confrontation in tech sphere is likely to be more prominent than in overall economy.

    7. What might be feasible is some reform within the neoliberal framework that gained certain concessions from China but more or less retained the inclusive structures of neoliberal globalization that have controlled the world economy since the Soviet collapse in 1992.

      It is most likely development ahead of us.

    8. Unlike the Soviet Union, China’s participation in the world economy is indispensable for world stability and sustainable development, which creates a realization of mutual benefits.

      Good point on difference in analogy between two 'cold wars'

    9. Again, much depends on the degree to which the Biden leadership with continues to address global security through a militarist optic. Early indications suggest that the demilitarization of the American political and moral imagination will not be forthcoming in the near future whoever is president.

      Another key point.

    10. restoring civility to the American political scene

      It is the key point for restoring democratic space in the USA and beyond.

    11. If Biden decides to ignore the priorities of this lingering large Trump support he will be confronted by resentment and disruption.

      Key challenge for Biden.

    12. one movement would be toward restoring the spirit and substance of market driven transnational agreements and frameworks designed to encourage trade and investment within a rule governed framework that is mutually beneficial and inclusive; the second movement is more ideologically delimited, seeking frameworks that are ideologically and geopolitically more closely aligned, excluding China, and possibly Russia.

      two key developments.

    13. Biden’s leadership moves away from confrontation and toward accommodation, which seems unlikely.

      This is the key open issue.

    14. It is these realities that are at the root of the relative world decline in the economic sphere, and the overall crisis confidence, currently besetting  the United States.

      It is typical pattern of decline of big powers as described by Paul Kennedy - dominant power starts shifint resources and societal narrative from creative and dynamic sectors of society (economy, arts, education) towards security. This shift can easily drain society and trigger ultimate decline as it happened with Rome, Byzantine, Napoleon, Soviet Union and many other dominant powers in the history.

    15. The U.S.’s military budget is larger than the combined military expenditures of the next ten countries, and yet the U.S. has never felt more insecure throughout its entire history.

      It is paradox.

    16. What is the reason for this?

      The answer is a very good summary of two dynamics in tech, economic, policy and other developments.

    17. leftovers from the Cold War rivalry

      'Victory curse' - back to Paul Kennedy's book on the Raise and Decline of Big Powers.

    18. The U.S. has long suffered from the effects of massive over-investment in military capabilities, which has led to a series of costly foreign policy failures going back to Vietnam, compounded by a refusal to adapt to a global setting in which the politics of national resistance prevails over the superior weaponry of the United States, producing endless wars with unfavorable political outcomes for the intervening. So far China has avoided this trap, expanding through reliance on a variety of soft power instruments, but whether it can maintain this posture in the face of the U.S. current disposition toward confrontation and the initiation of a second cold war is not clear.

      The U.S. is one of the best example of the use of 'soft power' (culture, music, movies). For long time, the US was a great attraction for many people. Why it has changed in the last 10 years? Use of military is an important contributor to this errosion. But, I think explanation requires more deeper reflections. On the other side, China does not have 'soft power'. Successes of Confucius ceneters are limited comparing to footprint of the US soft power.

    19. centralized guidance in promoting technological innovations and in managing the allocations of capital investment in rapid and sustainable patterns of development.

      It has been much more complex than simplifed centralised guidelines. Here are relevant blog posts: https://www.diplomacy.edu/blog/center-periphery-differentiating-spheres-control-china%E2%80%99s-cyberspace

    20. China has more of a unitary system in which policy is set in Beijing for the entire country.

      It is not entiry correct. China has been experimenting a lot with local policy developments especially with new technologies. They used to start with policy experiment (data, security) in areas like Szhensen and extend gradually to the rest of the country.

      There is more local dynamics in China than it looks from outside. It is expected for the country with 1.5 billion people. The risk of decentralisation remains the main concern of Chinese political elite given frustrating experience from most of 19th and 20th century (e.g. Opium war, etc.). Thus, they attempt to centralise control. But, the reality is quite different.

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    1. An interesting summary of impact of liberatiarian think-tanks that have supported Trump and Brexit. Although the article documents well the main developments around Brexit negotiations, there are many contradictions. For example, Brexiters support WTO's renewal while Trump has been strong opponent of the WTO and global economic regulation.

      There are also a good information about mapping of the main think tank actors.

      ||kat_hone||||Katarina_An||||MariliaM||||TerezaHorejsova||||Pavlina||||NatasaPerucica||

    2. Singham told us last year that he realised the leave vote was a “massive global event” that could reboot the whole World Trade Organization.

      Again link to the WTO.

    3. Challenging this orthodoxy were economists of the Austrian school, including Friedrich Hayek, who believed that state intervention made the market operate less efficiently and thus hampered the creation of wealth. Hayek believed that state planning wasn’t just bad economics, but that it was politically disastrous and led to totalitarianism.

      Influence of Vienna thinkers

    4. By encouraging the creation of more and more thinktanks – a never-ending production line of new “institutes”, “centres” and “foundations”, whose acronyms blur into each other – the network can generate a “constant river of commentary” from its experts,

      it is explanation that you sudenly have new organisation which gets visibility in the main media.

    5. ublic policy thinktanks fall into different categories: some concentrate on neutral factual research, others have more fixed ideological positions and lobby for particular solutions. Some present themselves as scholarly institutes and call their researchers scholars or fellows, although they are as likely to have come from politics, lobbying, media or the law as from academia. Some thinktanks receive government funding, others depend on donations. They may be registered as private companies, or as not-for-profit charities. The latter status gives them and their donors substantial tax breaks but, in theory, also restricts how directly political their activities can be. In practice, the lines are blurred and are repeatedly the subject of dispute.

      Diversity of think-tank scene in terms of neutrality, affiliations and funding.

    6. Brexit was also an opportunity to revitalise the World Trade Organization and its drive towards unfettered globalised free trade, which had ground to a halt in 2014 as it became increasingly unpopular.

      There is an interesting link with WTO. It is a bit confusing since Trump is supported by these circles and he supported Brexit, but Trump is strongly opposed to WTO.

    7. the IEA, the Legatum Institute and the Initiative for Free Trade, to help write detailed proposals for what the UK’s departure from the EU, and its future relationships with both the EU and the US, should look like, raising questions about foreign influence on British politics.

      Independence of the UK policy?

    8. but the sheer number of connections between Johnson’s cabinet and ultra free market thinktanks was something new.

      this is a new trend.

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    1. Changing the network's DNA

      ||MariliaM||

    2. Some call it digital balkanisation. Others, like Julie Owono, call it the splinternet.

      ||Jovan|| your favorite expression and reference to the alternative expression - splinternet/balkanisation - sliceed-up Internet