1. Last 7 days
    1. Share of Economies With Relevant E-Commerce Legislation in Africa, by region, 2017 (%

      To check various laws related to digital economy

    2. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVESTO DRIVE THE DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION TO PROPEL INDUSTRIALIZATION IN AFRICA AND CONTRIBUTE TO THE DIGITAL ECONOMY AND SUPPORT AFCFTA

      Good list of concrete objectives for Africa.

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    1. But investigators trying to detect sanctions-cheaters—for government agencies, pressure groups, or insurers and other businesses—are encountering a surge of help from an unexpected quarter.

      sanction surveillance

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    1. Undersea cables carry Internet traffic across continents. They are part of the critical information infrastructure of the modern world.

      Scientists started using these cables as a global network of sensors that monitor seismic and other changes at the seabed previously beyond the reach of the scientific community.

      As Wired indicated in the recent coverage Where there's cable, there's potential data.

      Geoscientist Philippe Jousset said 'You can interrogate any fibre under the sea, covering all of the Earth'.

      Undersea cables could be also used as early-earning tools for tsunami as they can detect any tectonic shifts on the seabed.

      Source: Undersea Cables are carrying scientific secrets.

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    1. actions could institutions undertake

      One of the actions that would be most helpful would be implementing layered security. This basically means that when/if one control measure does not work 100% there would be partial mitigant in another layer of control put in place.

      For instance, implementing network segmentation at the network layer and then host-based firewalls on the endpoint/devices, anti virus and threat detection capabilities on the systems would mean that if one of these fails, the other partially mitigates the risk.

      This here explains it well: https://blog.totalprosource.com/what-is-layered-security-how-does-it-defend-your-network

      Beyond layered security, people risk tends to be a critical factor when it comes to cyber security because all tools and capabilities implemented require vigilance on the part of the users. Therefore a robust training and awareness program would play a big role in minimising the risk.

      When it comes to high value assets, segmenting the network to ensure these are in a special zone with restricted ability for external connectivity to them would be beneficial and go a long way.

      Finally, many hackers exploit vulnerabilities therefore ensuring your solutions are up to date with the latest patches applied timely and sufficient measures are put in place to immediately identify potential breaches would also help.

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    1. Peace, security and human rights 2. Prosperity3. Sustainability4. Digitalisation

      Four priorities of the Swiss Foreign Policy

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    1. Flourish chord diagrams

      Use of flourish for chord diagrams

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    1. The original pretext for its base was to support anti-piracy missions in the Gulf of Aden.

      I was wondering why China established military base in Djibouti? What was the pretext?

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    1. Build Back Better World (b3w), is seen as a response to China’s Belt and Road Initiative. It was followed more recently by the eu’s Global Gateway infrastructure-for-Africa plan.

      two important projects in Africa ||sorina||

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    1. Yet some African regimes have made use of Chinese know-how to go after dissidents and journalists. The Wall Street Journal reported that in Zambia in 2019 the Cybercrime Crack Squad, a unit of the telecoms regulator, enlisted the help of Huawei to track down and arrest bloggers for an opposition news site. It also found that in Uganda in 2018 frustrated security officials had asked Huawei employees to help crack WhatsApp communications by the leader of an opposition movement. Huawei engineers penetrated a group chat, enabling Ugandan authorities to arrest the opposition figure and dozens of supporters and thwart plans for street demonstrations. (Huawei has denied that its employees conduct any such hacking).

      Examples of misuse of tech companies.

    2. a Chinese initiative to deliver satellite tv to “10,000 villages” in Africa.

      to check

    3. StarTimes, a Chinese satellite firm, is strong in digital television. Its public profile in Africa is as a tv provider, serving 13m subscribers in half of Africa’s 54 countries (plus 27m more customers across the continent who get content over the internet). Less visibly, it is helping 15 African countries migrate from analogue to digital transmission, according to a tally by Dani Madrid-Morales of the University of Sheffield.

      On China and AFrican infrastructure

      ||sorina||

    4. China brings officials from African countries to seminars on “cyberspace management”. At one such event in 2017 Freedom House, a non-profit group based in Washington, dc, found that attendees were given a tour of systems for “public-opinion management”, including “real-time monitoring of negative public opinion” and tools to guide public opinion to be more positive.

      ||sorina|| China's training for Africa in cyberspace management.

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    1. Data Poisoning is an adversarial attack that tries to manipulate the training dataset in order to control the prediction behavior of a trained model such that the model will label malicious examples into a desired classes (e.g., labeling spam e-mails as safe).

      What is data poisoning?

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    1. Social media research foundation - a good idea for data visualisation.

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    1. Tech giants begin to support data sovereignty, and data localisation. Google has opened cloud servers in Spain for data localisation. This service will be offered in collaboration with Telefonica, the Spanish telecom giant.

      A new 'data sovereignty' business model was highlighted in Google's announcement: “Accelerating digital transformation also requires cloud services that meet regulatory compliance and digital governance requirements. In particular, highly regulated sectors like government, healthcare and financial services need additional controls to store data and run workloads locally.”

      You can find more information here.

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    1. How different generations of diplomats incorporate and adapt not only to new tools but to this changing context of diplomacy affects their incorporation and appropriate use.

      I think this is very important because our senior diplomatic colleagues come from a very different generations than ours. In this respect, we not only get to learn from their expertise but they also learn from younger diplomats who might find it easier to navigate online and digital tools.

    2. This classroom demonstrates online learning as a tool for continuing education and training in a diplomat’s busy life and for outreach to constituencies. Does your mission or organisation use online training tools? What examples can you share?

      Yes, out diplomatic institute provides online training courses to members of the Mexican Foreign Service. These trainings cover a variety of topics like consular documentation, protection or even protocol.

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    1. Not because global solutions aren’t needed – they are an important part of the picture. But while many structural solutions to inequality do require global action, the radical changes needed on both the domestic and international fronts are not in the Davos wheelhouse because they threaten elite interests.

      Global solutions are needed but not by WEF.

    2. People, however, are no longer fooled by the Davos talk of equality, transparency, respect and diversity. They are well aware that those who benefitted and continue to benefit from the pandemic that left them struggling to put food on their table  – such as Pfizer CEO Albert Bourla, who made an eye-watering $24.3m in 2021 and is attending Davos – are not interested in the systemic changes needed to tackle inequality.

      ||VladaR||||MariliaM|| A good summary of Davos.

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    1. Share of topics related to clima-te/energy issues in news coverage on investment funds 2015–2022

      ||Jovan||

    2. INCLUSION OF PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES LIKELY TO GET MORE RECOGNITION AT LAST

      ||GingerP|| A very interesting text on public perception of people with disabilities.

    3. n May 2022 WHO have estimated that covid deaths have been under-reported and estimate there have been over 15 million deaths worldwide

      Estimated death by COVID.

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    1. I propose the below structure

      ||sorina|| ||VladaR||||Katarina_An|| This is ready-made structure. We will inform Soutila that we will use it for our report.

    2. here is need to create the African Union Senior Government Officials Group (AUSGOG) that will report to The Permanent Representatives Committee (PRC)

      We can includ this as proposal and quote this thesis.

      @sorinat@diplomacy.edu

    3. TheNews 24 (2019) reported a number of 21Internet shutdowns across Africa in 2018 against 13 in 2017 which unfortunately had economic implications in the region. For instance,CIPESA (2017) points out that Internet shutdowns have cost up to US$ 237 million in Sub-Saharan Africasince 2015.Moreover,Internet Shutdowns,restrictions and content blocking affect negatively the everyday life of African citizens as they rely on Internet to access knowledge and perform important activities,such as communicating with others

      shutdowns and content blocking.

    4. The Foreign Ministers of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Regional Forum (ARF)also engaged in developing CBMs and agreed in 2012 to develop “A work plan on security in the use of ICTs focused on practical cooperation on Confidence Building Measures”. The work plan was adopted in 2015 and put in place an Inter-SessionalSupport Group composed of Senior Officials and ARF Foreign Ministers to promote CBMsand Preventive Diplomacy through practical cooperationactionsamong states (ASEAN, 2015).

      ||Jovan|| Useful for my session next week with ASEAN ambassadors.

    5. These two Architectures (APSA and AGA) did not include policy dialogues on cybersecurity, Internet policy or any other topic related to Digital policy as an emerging issue to enable the Continent to tackle the challenges of the digital era.

      Gap on AFrican level (we can quote this thesis).

    6. Accordingto Bedzigui (2018), we need to link the two AU instruments APSA and AGA to enhance AU response to instability within the Continent, since both architectures includePSC and most security crisis or conflicts are related to either instability in Africa, bad governance or non-respect of democratic rules and human rights

      This could be an interesting insight

    7. t is noticeable that existing mechanisms and programs donot include the threats and risks stemming from the use Information Communication Technologies (ICTs),as wellas the new possibilities that cyberspace offers to perpetrate transnational criminal and terrorist activities that may also disruptthe functioning of African nations.

      ||VladaR|| ||sorina|| ||Katarina_An|| It is interesting that there is lack of link between traditional security instrumetns and cyber ones in Africa.

    8. Table 2

      ||Jovan|| we can check if this exists in word.

    9. South Africa

      ||sorina|| Sorina, we have something of our focus countries.

    10. In addition to undertaking cyber capacity building activities, so far a number of programs and legislative frameworks have been adopted by the Sub Regions notably: ECOWAS cybersecurity guidelines, ECCAS Model Law / CEMAC Directives on Cybersecurity(Data protection, e-transactions, cybercrime); SADC model law on data protection; SADC model law on e-transactions; SADC Model Law on Computer Crime and Cybercrimeand Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA);model Law on electronic transactions andModel Cybercrime Billadopted in 2011(Orji,2015).

      to include in sub-regional instruments

      sorinat@diplomacy.edu

    11. the AU Commissiondeveloped Guidelines on Internet Infrastructure Security (ISOC, 2017) and Guidelines on Personnel Data Protection in Africa (ISOC, 2018) where explanations and guidance on domestication of the Malabo Convention provisions are given.

      To be included as example of guidelines

      @sorina

    12. we can consider establishing IGFsin Africaas a successful model,especially in recent years with the increasing participation and involvementof government representatives.

      ||sorina|| Do we have this data?

      ||VladaR||

    13. Whilethe USA, Russia and China did not sign the declaration it is reported that four African countriesnamelyGabon, Morocco, Congo and Senegal have signed the declaration (Radunovic,2018)

      ||sorina|| vladar||VladaR|| Vlado, please find some intern to make geographical survey of membership of Paris Call. From this we can extract participation of Sub-Saharan African countries

      ||minam||

    14. Africaparticipation in the GCCs is limited to few countries such as Senegal, Kenya, Morroco and Tunisia which are members of the GFCE which generally nominatedelegates from the ministry of ICT to attend the conferences without internal coordination with other Ministries.

      ||sorina|| Do we have this statistics?

    15. Thepace of ratification is very slow withonly four countries ratified (Senegal,Mauritius, Namibia and Guinea), this is due tolack of assistance and support from the African Unionto Member States, the lengthy processes within the countries,lack of awareness of decision makersand parliaments on the importance of cybersecurity and its relation to national security and prosperity.

      ||sorina|| We may quote this thesis with the reasns why ratification of the Malabu convention is not gaining off.

      I will check with Moctar if one of our recommendation will be to help African countreis to ratify this convention.

    16. Among the aforementioned African countries,four countries havealready ratified the Budapest Convention (Mauritius, Senegal, Moroccoand Cape Verde)

      ||sorina|| we shold have this info about 4 countries that reatified the Budampest conventon.

      ||JovanK||

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    1. the new information sources

      Information gathering has still remained a core function of diplomacy even with the internet.

      What has changed is the speed of dissemination of information and breath of possible recipients. In the past, any information once disseminated would not be accessible immediately to the public but with internet there are many sources that may sometimes post unverified information which may escalate a situation. The diplomats therefore need to be ahead of the pack and have mechanisms to monitor relevant information sources proactively and in some cases share the information that is not restricted from the public openly and faster than was done in the past.

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    1. an early draft of an executive order meant to stop rivals like China from accessing American data.

      ||Pavlina|| Do you know more about this draft?

    2. Driven by security and privacy concerns, as well as economic interests

      Main reasons for control of data flows.

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    1. thefollowingplurilateralinitiativesintheWTO

      Could plurilateral be risk for multilateral approach?

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    1. ||MariliaM|| There is sharp decline in tech markets. Here is an interesting analysis.

    2. The industry has suffered from an abrupt reversal of fortunes, explains Mark Mahaney of Evercore ISI, an investment bank. In recent years more than one factor gave tech a boost: the coronavirus pandemic pushed life and work online; government stimulus programmes further increased demand; and super-loose monetary policy made tech’s long-term growth more attractive to investors. Now people are turning away from screens and leaving home again; the war in Ukraine is creating paralysing uncertainty; and economies around the world are suffering from inflation and soon, perhaps, recession.

      Here are the main reasons for decline of tech industry.

    3. Although they were meant to reach the Moon no matter what, cryptocurrencies are also coming a cropper. Even some hardened “hodlers” have been getting cold feet. On May 12th bitcoin, the largest cryptocurrency, was trading below $26,000, less than half its peak in early November. Other digital monies have shed even more value. The next four biggest coins have lost more than 70% since their peak. Non-fungible tokens (NFTs), even more speculative titles to digital assets such as art that can be traded, have been hammered, too. Sales of NFTs in ether, another big cryptocurrency, have dropped by more than half in recent weeks on OpenSea, a big NFT marketplace.

      Drop of trade market.

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    1. Scientific sanctions on Russia may affect significantly research on climate change.

      As it is analysed by the Economist, the main setback on climate research will be on Artic and Siberia's permafrost:

      Permafrost research, crucial for understanding where climate projections will end up, is likely to suffer in particular. Two-thirds of Russia is covered by permafrost, and this frozen ground locks up huge amounts of organic material. As it melts and that organic material decays, greenhouse gases in the form of methane and carbon dioxide are released into the atmosphere. Without good data on these emissions, understanding about their contribution to climate change will decline.

      So far, as the Ukraine war escalates, there are no moves towards re-establishing scientifc cooperation between Russia and the West. The continuation of this situation will significantly affect Artic and climate science in both parts of the world.

      More information is available here: https://www.economist.com/science-and-technology/russian-and-western-scientists-no-longer-collaborate-in-the-arctic/21809236

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    1. ||VladaR|| Vise nista ne razumem. Sankcije su pomogle Rusiji da se obogati.

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    1. ||MariliaM||||VladaR|| here is an interesting article o brainstorming. As we finished one, it seems that we did well on most points from this article.

    2. Some simpler rules are much more likely to help. Define the parameters of a brainstorming session upfront. Try to make a specific thing work better rather than to shoot for the Moon. Involve people you don’t know, as well as those you do. Start by getting people to write their ideas down in silence, so extroverts and bosses have less chance to dominate. And be clear about the next steps after the session is over; the attraction of holding a “design sprint”, a week-long, clear-the-diary way for a team to develop and test product prototypes, is that the thread connecting ideas to outcomes is taut. All of which would make brainstorming a little more thought-provoking and a tad less heart-sinking.

      Some good ideas for brainstorming

    3. Normal routines afford employees precious little time to think.

      Our 'thinking Friday' should help

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    1. For that, Singapore has better prospects. Some China-based journalists wound up in the city-state by chance—the Financial Times’s Beijing bureau chief happened to be in Singapore with his family as China locked down and has stayed. Others are drifting in as China remains all but closed, including from Hong Kong. Crucially, it is not only journalists who are coming to Singapore. The Carnegie-Tsinghua Centre for Global Policy in Beijing is a joint venture between an American think-tank and one of China’s most prestigious universities. It aims to encourage dialogue and collaboration between scholars in China and the West. Its American head, Paul Haenle, a former White House official, now resides in Singapore. Some Western countries have spread staff who were formerly based in Beijing to other embassies around the region, including missions in Singapore. Such arrivals jokingly refer to their new home in the city-state as “Beijing South”. Few say they will never return to China if or when it reopens—but nor do they openly commit to doing so. Meanwhile, a trickle of expat business executives moving to Singapore from Hong Kong is turning into a steady stream. The country’s attractions are undeniable. Its people are refreshingly direct. English is universally spoken, which is not the case in Hong Kong. Clean, green, prosperous and safe, it is, as one of its officials jokes, “Asia-lite”—easy for many Westerners to adjust to, but with plenty of exotic brushstrokes.

      Why Singapore is becoming an important center for 'China wathcers'?

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    1. ||ArvinKamberi|| Here is some update on the current situation of cryptocurrencies

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    1. Publicising our successes in advancing democracy, good governance and human rights must form an essential part of our public diplomacy efforts.

      An imiportant focus of public diplomacy.

    2. The African Peer Review Mechanism is a critical tool to advance good governance and democracy under Agenda 2063, but beyond African countries themselves, there is still not enough awareness about what the APRM has achieved.

      Unknown success story

    3. This stance has put us firmly on the side of social justice and principled solidarity, and reaffirmed our commitment to progressive internationalism.

      New element of progressive internationalism.

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    1. This is partly because of a naive belief in leapfrogging, the assumption that, like skipping landlines for mobile phones, Africa can ‘leap’ to new energy technologies.

      naive analogy between digital and energy/enviornment.

    2. President Muhammadu Buhari has also pledged that Nigeria will reach net-zero emissions by 2060.

      This is another good map: what are pledges of countries for carbon reduction?

    3. Total electricity use for more than a billion people, covering all 48 sub-Saharan African countries except South Africa, is less than that used by Spain (home to just 47m)

      This could be part of environment and digitalisation. Text:

      Digitalisation will consumer more and more electricity. Some estimates are that it will come by 2030 to 8% of total electrical power consumption globally. Fast digitalisation of Africa will contribute increase to the use of electricity. It is also an area for a new and efficient ways of using electricity.

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    1. Titlte: Need for more innovation in South African diplomacy

      South African diplomacy need to be more innovative in order to adjust to the post-pademic era. It was the underlying message of President Cyril Ramaphosa, President of South Africa during the Annual conference of heads of missions of the Department of International Relations and Cooperations.

      As a practical step towards more innovative diplomacy, President Ramaphosa said 'We need to adapt to digital diplomacy and host targeted seminars to sell South Africa.'.

      The Annual Conference of South African diplomacy stressed three priority areas for innovation in diplomacy:

      1. to attract tourism, trade, and investment by using innovative tools and approaches.

      2. to strengthen people-to-people relations towards cultivating tolerance, and cultural understanding. The main focus should be on youth development programmes.

      3. to strengthen public diplomacy via the use of social media and other advanced tools and approaches.

      Source: City Press

    2. “We need to adapt to digital diplomacy and host targeted seminars to sell South Africa.”

      Interesting request.

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    1. Vienna

      Procedures in communication among sovereign states can often be mis-guided due to the differences of not only the culture of the people but also the history of the nation. Through some of the procedural rules that have been established, the process of communication among state organizations are clearer. However, it would be advisable to keep up to date with the cultural changes with cooperating and uncooperative states.

    2. Games

      It is through the same ideals and showmanship that the Olympic Games present that allowed participating nations to display their capabilities among competing forces. This further creates amicable communication among leaders and representatives.

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    1. Global Cross-Border Privacy Rules Declaration aims to extend the current APEC Cross-Border Privacy Rules (CBPR) system worldwide.

      It is also an attempt to address the need for a regulatory framework for the cross-border flow of data. The current CBPR system used by APEC countries has been developed over the last 10 years with an international certification system, standard development, etc.

      The declaration is signed by Canada, Japan, the Republic of Korea, the Philippines, Singapore, Chinese Taipei, and the United States of America.

    2. Global Cross-Border Privacy Rules Declaration aims to extend the current APEC Cross-Border Privacy Rules (CBPR) system worldwide.

      It is also an attempt to address the need for a regulatory framework for the cross-border flow of data. The current CBPR system used by APEC countries has been developed over the last 10 years with an international certification system, standard development, etc.

      The declaration is signed by Canada, Japan, the Republic of Korea, the Philippines, Singapore, Chinese Taipei, and the United States of America.

    3. not just for big, multinational technology companies, but for companies across all sectors of the economy, and for micro, small- and medium-sized businesses, workers, and consumers as well;

      this is an implicit reference to the concern that U.S. is pushing free data flows only for the interest of big tech. These lines refer to the whole of the economy.

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    1. One of the conslusion of our Geneva brainstorming was to hire a consultant for EU funding. @vladar will follow-up with Milica and Belgrade EU fund-raising scene. Under this tag 'Diplo funding' we will start collecting resources for this person to monitor.

      Here is the page with Digital Europe programme funding that should be shared with fund-raising consultant.

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    1. the following points

      ||VladaR||||AndrijanaG|| They approach cybersecurity - economy nexus from a very good by focusing on

      • building a cybers-security culture (cyber hygiene)
      • identify critical assets
      • adopt a comphrenesive security strategy
      • invest in education and skills development
      • create trust from within and without
      • proceed gradually.
    2. Of the European SMEs that the EU Agency for Cybersecurity (ENISA) surveyed in 2021, 90% stated that cybersecurity issues would have serious negative impacts on their business within a week of the issues happening, with 57% of them likely to become bankrupt or go out of business.

      ||MarcoLotti|| We should use this statistics as intro for FONGIT exercise on cybersecurity.

      ||VladaR||||AndrijanaG|| ||MariliaM|| This nexus economy - cybrsecurity is emerging. We should cover it on Dig.Watch + use in our courses. Vlada/Andrijana, it could be a possible nexus for Geneva Dialogue.

      The more we use cross-cutting on nexus coverge, the closer we are getting to our core advantage and mission.

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    1. A new Cooperation Framework on issues related to information integrity in crises, particularly on digital platforms

      ||Pavlina|| This could be linked to EU's DSA crisis-management provision which can deactivate platforms in the case of misinformation in crisis.

    2. An early warning system to better predict and address potential semiconductor supply chain disruptions as well as a Transatlantic approach to semiconductor investment aimed at ensuring security of supply and avoiding subsidy races;

      ||VladaR|| This is for follow-up with semi-conductor 'watch'. There is a new concrete initiative by USA and EU.

    3. a U.S.-EU Strategic Standardization Information (SSI) mechanism

      New mechanism for US-EU coopration in standardisation.

      ||sorina||

    4. They are collaborating closely on emerging technology standards, climate and clean tech objectives data governance and technology platforms, information and communications technology services’ (ICTS) security and competitiveness, and the misuse of technology threatening security and human rights. The TTC working groups are also coordinating on export controls, investment screening and security risks, and a range of global trade challenges, including countering the harmful impact of non-market, trade-distortive policies and practices on technological development and competitiveness in sectors of shared priority

      Main topic areas of cooperation

    5. by expanding access to digital tools for small- and medium-sized enterprises and securing critical supply chains such as semiconductors

      Two focus areas

    6. disagreements on tariffs

      this is the main stumbling block in tech relations between USA and EU.

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  2. May 2022
    1. AU Agenda 2063

      Do we have reference to this Agenda 2063

      ||sorina||

    2. he African Continental Free Trade Area (ACFTA) and African Single Market (ASM) 3)

      Are these two different or complementar?

      ||sorina||

    3. Less than 10 countries have established the office of the national data commissioner, a critical office under the Malabo Convention.

      To include this into data coverage (maybe to map it).

      ||sorina||||Katarina_An||||minam||

    4. “Cyber direct” project: contribute to the development of a secure international cybersphere, to support the principles of single open stable free secure cyberspace which adheres to the values of democracy and human rights. The initiatives promote the UN framework for responsible states' behaviour to ensure the stability of cyberspace.

      ||sorina|| Have we included 'cyber direct' in survey of EU initiatives?

    5. Africa is diverse and each state has its context,

      We should introduce this elemnet of diversity into our narrative.

    6. Taking the example of the Malabo convention, the failure or refusal to ratify this convention may have political dimensions rooted in our diversity (political, cultural, historical) in addition to the lack of capacity despite many initiatives, confidence building measures and capacity building, led by the AUC.

      Reasons why Malabo convention is not yet ratified

      ||sorina||||Katarina_An||

    7. The continent should be interested in issues related to Cyber Diplomacy because cyberspace like any global environment is only as strong as its weakest link, and Africa must NOT be the weak link.

      We can use this statement as link between global and African dynamics

      ||sorina||||Katarina_An||

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    1. Center on Conflict, Development, and Peacebuilding, Graduate Institute in Geneva

      link

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    1. Number of internet users and world trade by sector

      Sharp increase in ICT service xports.

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    1. Here are a few highlights by Christine Lagarde's speech. We can follow emerging language, framing of issues and impact on digital space. Here the are:

      • shift from dependence to diversification, from efficiency to security, from globalisation to regionalisation.

      • 'open trade' is now 'open and safer trade' (in the USA, it is free and safer trade. New language is emerging.

      • end of efficiency as main economic mantra during the era of stable geopolitics.

      Three major shifts

      • from dependence to diversification; reshoring accelerates; EU is building 'home' semiconductor industry. Will Malta benefit from this semiconductor expansion as Malta hosts one of a few semiconductor factories on European soil.
      • from efficiency to security; investment in security of the economy is becoming a priority for many countries. Cybersecurity will play an increasingly important role
      • from globalisation to regionalisation is a strategy from which Europe may benefit given its - already - well developed regional approach via a single market.

      Europe will use so-called Brussels effect of using its economic might to steer openness in a rule-based direction.

      A few new concepts are promoted such as open strategic autonomy.

      One risky aspect is that EU plans to use its economic might to set values globally (Brussels regulatory effect). Digital sphere as deeply shaped by values (privacy, freedom of expression) will be the most directly affected by such policy.

      ||VladaR|| ||MariliaM||

    2. “open strategic autonomy”

      new concept.

    3. Fragmentation at the global level may ultimately spur greater integration at the regional level because the latter can help to manage the costs of a changing world.

      Key phrase.

    4. a fallback, regionalisation allows countries to recreate some of the benefits of globalisation on a smaller scale and to limit these costs.

      a formulation for digitalisation as well.

    5. establishing fully domestic semiconductor manufacturing supply chains within the United States could cost up to USD 1 trillion, according to one estimate

      Statistics on semi-conductors. ||VladaR||

    6. Trade as a share of GDP rose from 31% to 54% in the euro area between 1999 and 2019, whereas in the United States it rose from just 23% to 26%

      it is interesting that Europe benefited much more from globalisation than USA.

    7. trade safer

      Similar to USA, EU is adding 'safer' to free and open trade.

    8. These are the shifts from dependence to diversification, from efficiency to security, and from globalisation to regionalisation.

      Three major shifts in global economy.

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    1. Speech of Janet Yellen has a few key points:

      • she added 'secure' to the description of free trade
      • future governance will be via plurilateral agreements on high standards on labour, environment, human rights, etc.
      • friend-shoring will shift businesses with countries that share values and security concerns with the USA.
      • digital was not prominently covered.

      ||MariliaM||||VladaR||

    2. to adopt high standards with respect to labor, the environment, privacy protections, digital—you know, treatment of digital business and services that these countries might band together and form partnerships, you know, that can be open partnerships that other countries can join, participate in, so that it’s not a closed grouping; it’s a plurilateral but open grouping that would encourage other countries to join.

      It will be most likely formula for the future of global governance: plurilateral agreement on the core standards. It remains to be see what new standards will be and how many countries will adopt high standards.

    3. friend-shoring means—and you’ve seen this in action—that we have a group of countries that have strong adherence to a set of norms and values about how to operate in the global economy and about how to run the global economic system, and we need to deepen our ties with those partners and to work together to make sure that we can supply our needs of critical materials.

      Definition of friend-shoring.

    4. our

      Who are 'our'? Who are 'them'?

    5. a network of plurilateral trade arrangements to incorporate elements of the modern economy that are growing in economic importance, especially digital services.

      Does it mean abandoning WTO and multilateral approaches.

    6. friend-shoring of supply chains

      New concept

    7. free but secure trade

      adding 'secure' to previous free trade.

    1. to make sure that we can supply our needs of critical materials.”

      linking trade to security and human rights (role for Geneva)||MariliaM||||VladaR||

    2. “It will be increasingly difficult to separate economic issues from broader considerations of national interest, including national security.”

      From transactional to more ideological logic.

    3. ree but secure trade

      new coin

    4. by the stresses created by China’s model of state-directed capitalism

      or unexpectedly fast jump of China to the top of 'production ladder (move to high tech)

      ||MariliaM||

    5. The ideal of a single, deeply integrated global trade system – embodied in the founding of the General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT) and the World Trade Organization (WTO) – no longer seems realistic.

      ||MariliaM|| Endo of WTO and GATT