28 Matching Annotations
  1. Oct 2020
    1. During the same period, Apple reportedly refusedChina’s requests for its source code.35Meanwhile, companies including IBM, Hewlett-Packard, McAfee, Cisco, and the German company SAP agreedto use intermediary companies to allow the source code for their products to be inspected under requirements imposed by Russia’s Federal Security Service

      E-commerce course update.

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  2. Sep 2020
    1. he wide-reaching influence of digital technologies on people’s lives has led to calls for a broader definition of consumer welfare in assessing the harm of insufficient competition, covering non-price factors such as quality, choice, privacy,

      Good point. Adapt definition of consumer welfare.

    2. A better strategy for evaluating firm behaviour is to consider competitive relationships and strategies across markets, entry barriers, con-flicts of interest, the emergence of gatekeepers and bottlenecks, the use and control of data, and the dynamics of bargaining power.

      Competition authorities should take these into account.

    3. Countries with limited capacity to transform digital data into digital intelligence are constrained in their potential to capture economic value from data. To prevent dependence on a small group of advanced countries in the increasingly data-driven economy, national development strategies need to include digital upgrading (value addition) in data value chains. This would enhance domestic capacities to move from treating data as raw material to processing digital data and using artificial intelligence. It may involve designing national data policies and strategies to seize opportunities that the expansion of data can create, and manage associated risks and challenges

      Transforming data into intelligence

    4. POLICIES AND STRATEGIES TO CLOSE THE DIGITAL DIVIDE AMONG AND WITHIN COUNTRIESInnovation policy

      Take into account when updating the e-commerce and AI course

    5. A significant concentration of market power can have negative implications on several fronts

      Negative consequences of market concentration

    6. The network effect, or the effect that an additional user has on the value of a product to others, and the increasing returns to scale, are both salient features of the digital economy that have enabled a small number of digital platforms to dominate markets. Possessing troves of data and algorithms to process them, these platforms can engage in anticompetitive behaviours that prevent others from enter-ing the market or competing efficiently

      Digital tech and market concentration

    7. FIGURE 5.2 LARGE PARTS OF THE WORLD ARE MISSING OUT ON TECHNOLOGY CREATION AND USE

      For the AI and e-commerce course. ||kat_hone|| it could be useful to you as well.

    8. illustrates two salient features in the creation and use of frontier digital technologies for production. First, large parts of the world, especially on the African continent, remain completely excluded.3 These countries are not even importing any significant volumes of the most representative goods. Second, even among countries with some activity in frontier digital production technologies, the roles are quite diverse. Latecomers, for instance, are entering the race, but it is not yet clear if they will become followers. Among the followers, a large number are mainly importing capital goods produced aboard, with very little or no domestic innovation and few exports. Their prospects to advance are limited, as this will require large investment

      Figures on the creation and use of frontier digital technologies: advanced robotics, computer-aided manufacturing, additive manufacturing and machine learning. ||Jovan||

    9. These top economies account for almost all global activity in each area – above 90 per cent.

      Patents, imports and exports of advanced technologies. Interesting amount and the chart that follows is also very interesting.

    10. Digitalization and data policies to secure and maximize value from the digital economy may involve aspects such as national data strategies, protections of the rights of individuals, open-data guidelines, standards for the interoperability of data functions and promotion of skills relevant for the data economy. Governments should deal with existing and emerging barriers to the growth of their domestic data markets;

      Interesting reference to "national data policies" and "national data markets".

    11. To secure a digital future for the many, domes-tic and international policies should go beyond simply enlisting more developing country users and consumers into the digital economy. They should enable the building of domestic capabil-ities to create and capture value. Only then can digitalization fully support the 2030 Agenda.

      Inclusion not only as consumers, but as capable producing and capturing value.

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    1. Global data flows underpin global value chains (GVCs), creating new opportunities for participation in international trade.32 For many economies, participation in GVCs is the deciding factor for trading internationally. More than 50 percent of trade in goods and over 70 percent of trade in services is in intermediate inputs.33 Data and digital technologies are affecting GVC participation in several ways. The development of these value chains has been enabled by global connectivity and cross-border data flows that facilitate communications and can be used to coordinate logistics.34 Global data flows are also enabling so-called “supply chain 4.0”—where information flows are integrated and omnidirectional instead of linear.3

      Good paragraph about the importance of data flows for inclusion in GVCs. ||MariliaM||

    2. taking account of the value of services embedded in goods exports, such as the design, professional service, and IT contributions tomanufactured goods, services make up over 55 percent of total EU exports.

      Interesting figure. Servicification affecting trade in goods. ||MariliaM||

    3. Lucian Cernat and Zornitsa Kutlina-Dimitrova, THINKING IN A BOX: A ‘MODE 5’ APPROACH TO SERVICE TRADE, DG Trade Chief Economist Note, Issue 1 March 2014

      Check for e-commerce course update

    4. around 12 percent of global goods trade is via international e-commerce.18 According to a 2019 U.N. Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) report, e-commerce globally was worth $29 trillion in 2017, with around 1.3 billion people shopping online—up 12 percent from the previous year.19

      Some figures for e-commerce course update ||MariliaM||

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    1. On the other hand, trends of concentration in the provision of many services described in this report are often accompanied by many benefits. DNS hosting or CDNs are services that will continue to benefit from economies of scale, and as long as competition persists among the large providers, it will make services like advanced DDoS mitigation more affordable and readily available to a broader range of users and content providers. In the absence of a complete market dominance, or practices leading to single points of failure (e.g., failing to use multiple DNS hosting providers), these trends could have positive effects on security and the Internet’s resilience.

      Positive consequences of concentration on security.

    2. They also reinforce an opportunity divide between developed and developing countries. Mobile app stores1 do this by imposing geographical restrictions

      Example of how concentration can affect the digital divide and development.

    3. increased dependency on well-known proprietary platforms for interoperation also imply a shift towards a qualitatively different environment than one defined by permissionless innovation, even where open standards support the interoperation.

      For e-commerce course update - chapter on business models and on IG.

    4. social login functions offered by some social media platforms enable new developers to outsource the need for developing complex systems for managing not only membership and login credentials, but also the security and legal requirements related to these.

      Could be interesting to mention in course updates. This is also advantageous for platforms, as it gives more information about user behaviour and preferences. ||GingerP||

    5. The software company Mozilla has made proposals to the U.S. Federal Trade Commission around API governance, which it calls ‘”the fundamental connective tissue of the Internet.

      To be included under competition in the e-commerce course.

    6. For example, the ride-hailing service, Uber, has been using Google Maps’ API to connect drivers and customers to routes and directions.46 This integration was a critical part of Uber’s success, but it meant the company’s core activity depended on access to another firm’s API.

      Good example.

    7. As large investments are required in order to provide the full range of capabilities and resources, the IaaS and PaaS markets appear to be consolidating around the major players.

      If users in developing countries are hiring big companies to be their cloud computing providers, what's the impact of potential data localisation? Theoretically, these companies would have the resources to build processing facilities in developing countries (at least the largest ones). But: a) would that really translate into gains for developing countries (ex. create jobs, access to technology, the development of a local tech scene? b) Would smaller countries be able to enforce the same demand?; c) could data localisation be enforced on a regional basis instead to benefit from some gains of scale? ||MariliaM||

    8. With the ability to access and manage servers remotely, from anywhere on the Internet, new businesses have emerged that specialise in renting out space and processing on their servers. Today, cloud computing services dominate this arena. They use large data-centres with expertise and economies of scale, offering their specialised services globally. Customers tend to access these resources as needed instead of buying and managing servers themselves
      • Will data localisation trends affect the infrastructure of the service provision (ex. will localization of data centers have an impact on CDN deployment)?
      • How will data localisation trends affect the market of cloud computing services? (there are some empirical cases to study eg. India)
      • What is the prevailing regulatory trend in trade negotiations (global and regional, via RTAs, and national with a few case studies) when it comes to data localization? What are the political motivations for and against data localization?
      • What are the potential gains and losses that developing countries may face if they implement data localisation provisions? What are the potential unintended consequences (ex. difficulty in accessing the processing and analytical capability necessary for the national development of AI tools? ||MariliaM||
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  3. Aug 2020
    1. The OASIS-led Universal Business Language represents a free, common, library of standardised electronic business documents for digitisation of commercial/logistical processes in domestic and international supply chains

      Look into this example ||MariliaM||

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  4. Jun 2020