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  1. Jan 2023
  2. Jul 2022
  3. Sep 2021
    1. The complexity of modern conflicts and crises continues to grow with the marriage of emergingfactors, such as climate change, cyber threats anddisinformation,and the old foesof authoritarianism andtyranny.
    2. n recoveringfrom the pandemic, we cannot revert to business as usual. We need to do better, andbuild a greener, bluer,and more equitable and sustainable future.

      The goal: build a greener, bluer, more equitable and sustainable future

    3. But Iceland’s main contribution in the fight against climate change will continue to be our knowledge and experience in the use of green energy solutions. This is a global crisis, and we must rely on each other’s expertise and knowledge.

      sharing expertise and knowledge on green energy solutions

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    1. If COVID-19 would claim one life in the absence of so-called sanctions, it would claim so many more when they are in place. As the Special Rapporteur on the negative impact of the unilateral coercivemeasures on the enjoyment of human rights said, “Sanctions are bringing suffering and death in countries like Cuba, Iran, Sudan, Syria, Venezuela and Yemen”. And as noted by a group of independent UN human rights experts, “Sanctions that were imposed in the name of delivering human rights are in fact killing people and depriving them of fundamental rights, including the rights to health, to food and to life itself”.End of quote

      grave impact of unilateral sanctions across the globe.

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    1. Taiwanshould have the rightto participate as an equal partner in the implementation of the SDGsasthey havedemonstrated their ability and supportedmanyin the SDG fields.They should also be part of “Our Common Agenda” vision.
    2. we applaud the efforts of the Secretary-General, His Excellency Mr. Antonio Guterres, to spearhead a revampedand reinvigoratedUnited Nationsas detailed in his report on Our Common Agendaand in principle support many of the proposals contained therewith
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    1. The state of global peace and security is a cause for concern. Terrorism, illicit flow of small arms and light weapons, transnational organized crime, cybercrimeand illicit financial flows among other aspects, continueto impede our march towards the realisation of sustainable peace, security and stability

      Threats to global peace and security such as terrorism, organised crime and cybercrime.

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    1. We must reinvigorate the effective andinclusive multilateralism that givesthe sense of joint participation in shaping our destiny. In this regard, I would like to particularly stress the efforts of Secretary-General Guterres to adopt the latest report –“Our Common Agenda”, which reaffirms the core values of the organization and offers concrete proposals for a more effective United Nations, based on inclusive multilateralism

      "Our Common Agenda" and inclusive multilateralism

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    1. economists are still reeling from the economic impact of the pandemic african governmentshave already spent scarce reserves fighting the pandemic and providing social protection tomillions of affected households ghana has been advocating that innovative financing mustalso address structural challenges beyond responding to immediate fiscal needs byproviding mechanisms to facilitate investments in health infrastructure technology theenvironment and people that will bolster resilience and equitable recovery the imf'sunprecedented 650 billion dollar
    2. we need to strengthen the funding of the existingglobal health organizations this must include a greater more predictable base of multilateralfunding for who and regional centers of disease controls which play the central roles inglobal health security

      increase the funding of the existing health organisations

    3. there is no question but that if the famous gathering in sanfrancisco was to take place today it would be a significantly different united nations charterthat would be written in much the same way a world bank or imf or who that is born todaywould be radically different institutions from those that were set up after the world war asmany of the countries in today's world especially in africa and the caribbean were notpresent in san francisco

      if written today, the UN Charter would be significantly different

    4. even before the pandemicoutbreak many have concluded that the current structure of global economic cooperationdesigned some 77 years ago has proven inadequate to finance infrastructure and economictransformation in developing countries given the incapacity of the global financial system toproduce the necessary outcomes to finance sustainable development
    5. president the last time there was such anupheaval in the world was during the second world war which led to the establishment of anew world order this organization the united nations and the other bretton woods institutionswere created to maintain its international peace and security helped rebuild the shatteredpost-war economy and promote global economic cooperation

      UN history and purpose

    6. in our collective fight against thepandemic in a continent suffering the worst brunt of vaccine nationalism

      vaccine nationalism

    7. african economies which contracted by 2.1percent in 2020 are yet to return to pre-pandemic levels more than 30 million africans fellinto extreme poverty in 2020 and nearly 40 million could do so in 2021. the social impact hasbeen devastating over 103 million african jobs have been lost women who account for 40percent of total employment have been most hard hit
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    1. But no country can combat climate change on its own. And that is a powerful reminder of the need to develop new ways to respond as one world, one humanity, to allthe crises and challenges we face.
    2. If humanity faced no other threats at all, we would still need to unite to face the most existential of our time—theglobal climate crisis. As one of the water-poorest countries in the world, Jordan is painfully aware of the threat. Our National Green Growth Action Plan is designed to ensure energy efficiency and strengthen our resilience in water and agriculture
    3. Elsewhere in theregion, Lebanon is facing a dire humanitarian and economic situation. Desperateliving-conditions are loomingfor millions—family tables without food, homes losing electricity and water, workplaces unable to operate. In this time of great need, we owe the Lebanese people our full support, to enable them to rise from this crisis.And that demands awell-planned, well-executed international response, engaging all of us

      crisis in Lebanon

    4. Global partnership is critical to resolving one of the longest-standing conflicts in modern history—thePalestinian-Israeli conflict

      Israeli-Palestinian conflict

    5. Jordan has long supported a collective approach. Since our country was founded a hundred years ago, we have worked closely with regional and international partners to support peace, progress, and mutual respect worldwide. We know the hardships and difficulties,but we also see the tremendous opportunities to build a better world
    6. thedeadly pandemic, climate change, violent conflicts exploited by global extremists, destabilising economic fault-lines, acontinuing, global refugee crisis.

      main issues discussed

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    1. On this occasion, I would like to remind everyone that discrimination based on a person’s ethnic origin is one of the forms of racial discrimination as set out in Item 1 of the Article 1 of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination adopted by the United Nations in 1966.

      discrimination based on ethnicity

    2. The strengthening of ethnic politics in my country, based on exclusivity and ethno-chauvinist tendencies, along with the rise of religious intolerance and the collapse of secularism in the Western Balkans region, is a matter of great concern.

      reference to ethnic conflict in the Balkans

    3. I emphasize the protection of human rights as the next great value.
    4. One of the consequences of the slowdown in sustainable development that we are facing is the outflow of the working age population to developed countries. According to available statistics, almost 10% of the population has emigrated from Bosnia and Herzegovina since the last census. Mostly, the working age population.

      brain drain and economic migration

    5. Therefore, financial support for the implementation of the Green Agenda is extremely important,

      call for financial support for the implementation of the Green Agenda

    6. groups of countries do not have sufficient capacity or resources to make a rapid and equitable transition to green energy sources. That will affect their ability to achieve sustainable development goals in the medium term.

      Countries that don't have capacity or resources to make rapid transition to green energy won't be able to achieve SDGs in the medium term.

    7. his necessary response will cost the lessdevelopedand developing countries the most -the countries which still rely on energy derived from fossil fuels.

      fighting climate change will expose the gap between developed and developing countries

    8. Climate change and global warming, both visible and scientifically proven through the work of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, are key issues that also limit the course of sustainable development

      Climate change limiting the course of sustainable development.

    9. Under the influence of new circumstances, the SDGs need to be seen in a whole new light.
    10. I would now like to commend some of the numerous regional organizations from the Western Balkans that have helped sustain the economy and facilitate the flow of people and basic goods under the new circumstances. I am primarily referring to the Central European Free Trade Agreement and the South East European Regional Cooperation Council.

      Importance of regional cooperation in the Balkans

    11. Multilateralism seemed to have collapsed

      collapse of multilateralism due to Covid-19 crisis

    12. The COVID 19 pandemic was an important message and a lesson for us on how the existing international system can be easily shaken, butalso how important the endurance and the resilience of international institutions built on multilateralism is for them to be able to respond to crisis situations
    1. our common agenda
    2. he developments and lessons learnt from Afghanistan will be high on our agenda, and rightly so. This reflection is necessary. But we must also urgently provide humanitarian assistance to the people in Afghanistan, 40% of whom are facing acute food insecurity.

      humanitarian crisis in Afghanistan

    3. My final point is about inclusiveness. We cannot save our planet if we leave out the vulnerable – the women, the girls, the minorities. The silent pandemic of gender-based violence can prove lethal to the health of our societies. Our long-term strategies, however brilliant, will become short-lived history if we do not involve young people.

      on inclusiveness

    4. We must make our own democracies more resilient and support those demanding their basic rights – including the freedom of speech or assembly – are respected. These rights are not a menu for governments to choose from. Citizens must exercise them freely: in Belarus where 650 people are prosecuted on political grounds, such as the social scientist Valeria Kostyugova – or in the occupied Crimea, or Venezuela, Russia, or Xinjiang.

      protection of human rights internationally

    5. Saving our planet, therefore also means upholding a rules-based international order and the rule of law, at home and abroad. Violation of these rules endangers everyone, not only those directly affected in Ukraine, Syria, Myanmar, or the Sahel region. It is the UN Security Council’s main responsibility to maintain international peace and security. Too often, we see it unable to act. Stopping violence and providing humanitarian access is not something to bargain about – it must be our utmost priority.

      protecting the rule of law, international peace and security

    6. At the Kunming summit, we must all play our part to protect biodiversity. In Slovakia, half of the national parks’ territory will be free of human intervention by 2025. In 10 years, this will be three-quarters of our national parks.


    7. Slovakia will reduce our emissions by 55% by 2030 and become climate neutral by 2050, along with the rest of the European Union. By 2023, coal will no longer be used to produce electricity and heat. In the coming years, we will spend almost 6% of our GDP on economic recovery: one-third of that will go into our green transition.

      Slovakia's green transition

    8. The findings of the recent IPCC report might be shocking. Yet, they are just stating facts. In less than six months, we were able to strike a deal on global fair taxation. We must equally strike a deal to prevent global carbon leakage. The upcoming COP26 in Glasgow must set the pace for a much swifter adaptation and radical emissions cuts.
    9. Vaccine egoism will only delay the pandemic’s end and lend time to new more lethal mutations. Solidarity should be our binding principle, not an option. Vaccines must be accessible to all and Slovakia will continue supporting the COVAX effort.

      vaccine egoism and vaccine nationalism

    10. More than 5 billion vaccine doses have been administered across the world – but nearly 75% of them are in just ten countries. Fifty countries have less than a 5% vaccination rate, with half of them just a 1% rate. This is a failure of politics projected onto the world stage in real-time.

      vaccination rates and gaps

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    1. whoever has wildly exploited natural resources should also make thegreatest contribution to the fight against climate change unlike the past this time no one canafford the luxury to say i'm powerful so i will not pay the bill because climate change will treatmankind quite equally it will treat everyone exactly the same

      Every nation to contribute to fight against climate change, especially the most developed countries

    2. it may be possible to prevent the coronaviruspandemic with the vaccines which were developed however it's out of the question to findsuch a laboratory manufactured solution to climate change for this reason also for climatechange we repeat our appeal with the motto that we continuously repeat the world is biggerthan five
    3. on the other another area affected by the increasein temperature is our seas expanding water and melting glaciers have raised sea levels by20 centimeters over the past centuries this figure is the fastest increase during the last 3000years i

      Sea level rise

    4. another danger awaiting our world is thatforests being among the most important carbon sinks are now facing complete annihilationdue to land use on the one hand and fires


    5. among these topics climate change is one we should particularly focus on as beyondbeing an environmental problem it will lead to irreparable consequences and uncertainty
    6. within china's territorial integrity perspective we do believe that more effortsneed to be displayed regarding the protection of the basic rights of the muslim uyghur turkswe maintain our stance in favor of solving the ongoing problem in kashmir for 74 yearsthrough dialogue between the parties and within the framework of relevant united nationsresolutions we also support ensuring the safe voluntary and dignified return of rohingyamuslims who are living under difficult circumstances in camps in bangladesh and myanmarback to their homelands fair lasting and a sustainable solution to the cyprus question ispossible only through a results-oriented realistic approach while the leader of one of the twopeoples on the island

      Protection of Muslim minorities in China, India, Myanmar, etc.

    7. annexation and illegal settlement policiesmust absolutely and immediately be brought to an end we will continue to stand up againstthe violation of the international status of jerusalem which is based on the united nationsresolution of 1947 and against violations of the sanctity of the haram al-sharif and of therights of the palestinian people the peace process and the vision of a two-state solution mustbe revived without further delay the establishment of an independent and contiguouspalestinian state with jerusalem as its capital on the basis of the 1967 borders remainamongst our primary objectives

      on the Palestinian cause

    8. we no longer have the potential nor the capability to absorb new immigrationinfluxes on the basis of fair burden and responsibility sharing it is high time for all thestakeholders to do their part on this issue

      All stakeholders to do their part on the migration issue on the basis of fair burden

    9. we need to display a stronger will to find a political solution tothe problem based on the united nations security council resolution 2254 and and in a waythat will meet the expectations of the syrian people we welcome the extension of the unitednations humanitarian assistance mechanism which is delivered to the northwest of syria viaturkey for yet another 12 months we hope that the council consulatory approach displayedon this issue will also be emulated in order to bring forward the political process and ensurethe voluntary safe and dignified return of the asylum seekers

      safe return of refugees and IDPs

    10. wewitnessed lastly in afghanistan in a very painful way that the problems cannot be solved byimposing methods that do not take into account the realities and the social fabric on theground or in the field the people of afghanistan have been left alone they were abandonedwith the consequences of instability and the conflicts that have lasted for more than fourdecades regardless of the political process afghanistan needs the help and solidarity of theinternational community we hope that peace stability and security will be established in thecountry as soon as possible and that they and that the afghan people will find relief

      Plea for solidarity and humanitarian assistance to Afghan people

    11. our national vaccine called turkovac to the benefit of all humanity

      Turkish vaccine

    12. it is a disgrace for humanity that the vaccine nationalism isstill being carried on through different methods

      vaccine nationalism

    13. unfortunately we were reminded once again during this pandemicthat the entire world are a part of a big family but the solidarity test that we were put to failedus miserably especially the underdeveloped countries and poor segments of the societieswere literally left to their fate in the face of the pandemic

      lack of international solidarity, underdeveloped countries and societies more affected by the pandemic

    14. in the last two years we've really been through painful times wehave lost 4.6 million people including our friends relatives and loved ones during the covet19 pandemic which was labeled as the biggest health crisis of the last century despite all theefforts displayed and the progress was made in vaccination we still witness the continuationof the negative ramifications of the pandemic in such a climate that we are observing the76th session of the united nations general assembly and i do believe that the messages ofsolidarity and cooperation which we will be conveying here will not only support the fightagainst the pandemic but also increase the hopes of billions of people who are goingthrough very challenging times
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    1. We need more than ever an effective multilateralism.
    2. In 2022, Portugal will host in Lisbon, together with Kenya, the Second UN Ocean Conference, an essential dimension of climate action. And Portugal supports the international recognition of the Right to a Healthy Environment
    3. Portugal, and the European Union, stand with multilateralism; with the United Nations; with a rules-based international order; with human rights. Portugal is committed to the reform of the World Health Organization, to supporting an International Treaty on Pandemics, to guaranteeing that vaccines are a global public good. Portugal is also committed to the 2030 Agenda; to the relief of external debt of the most vulnerable countries; to the implementation of the Global Compact for Migration as a "Champion Country

      Portugal's commitment to multilateralism

    4. we need to enlarge, deepen and accelerate reforms in the United Nations — in management, in peace and security, and the development system. And also to move forward in the reform of the Security Council — reflecting the realities of the 21st century, with at least African presence among the Permanent Members, as well as Brazil and India. But these reforms require additional financial means

      reform of the UN and the Security Council - more inclusivity

    5. the world is multipolar
    6. multilateralism, faced with challenges that go beyond borders and require joint responses, must be based on International Law, on the values of the Charter, and on the strengthening of International Organisations, starting with the United Nations and its specialised agencies.

      multilateralism based on international law

    7. he governance of a multipolar world requires commitment and agreement between nations, and that means multilateralism.

      need for multilateralism

    8. to respond to the pandemic, to seek international peace and security, to galvanise climate action, to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals in this Decade of Action, to ensure the centrality of human rights, to promote gender equality, and to deal with the challenges of digital transformation.


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    1. n this respect, I want to indicate that the State of Qatar has placed climate change at the forefront of its priorities, and it continues to take the necessary measures to develop climate change-related technologies and clean energy, and we will present all that at that conference next November

      climate change as one of Qatar's priorities

    2. Climate change remains one of the most critical challenges of our time, as it brings with it disastrous impacts on all aspects of life for the current and future generations, which necessitates pursuing our joint efforts to confront these effects.
    3. But on the other hand, the world has felt the effects of the misuse of cyberspace, including breaching private domains of individuals and international piracy and the serious threat it poses to the security and stability of the international community. From this standpoint, we reiterate the call for the United Nations to lead the process of unifying the efforts to prevent the misuse of the scientific progress in cybersecurity and regularize these vital aspects according to the rules of international law.

      on the misuse of cyberspace; UN to lead the efforts to prevent the misuse of cyberspace

    4. refer also to the world's increasing dependence on information technology and modern communication in all aspects of life, from education, to security and the economy.

      dependence on ICTs in all aspects of life

    5. Qatar's bet on international institutions and multilateral cooperation is a strategic one. In this context, we affirm pursuing our contributions to supporting the United Nations entities and fulfilling our commitments to the issues identified by the international community as priorities at this stage

      support to multilateralism

    6. With regard to the crisis in Yemen, where the war has led to a tragic humanitarian situation and risks of division that may, in turn, lead to the outbreak of other conflicts, the State of Qatar affirms its keenness for Yemen's unity and territorial integrity and its firm position that the only

      humanitarian crisis in Yemen and support to the country's territorial integrity and unity

    7. Regarding the Libyan issue, the positive developments that Libya had witnessed during the past year give rise to cautious optimism. T

      Somewhat positive developments in Libya

    8. A decade has passed since the start of the Syrian crisis, which unfolded with a peaceful uprising and then turned into a humanitarian catastrophe due to the war launched by the regime against its people and the extremist armed forces that took advantage of the situation. The continuation of the crisis poses immense perils, including the aggravation of the threat of terrorism to Syria itself and to the peace and security in the region and the world

      Crisis in Syria

    9. The issue in Afghanistan is not a matter of victory or defeat but rather an issue of failure to impose a political system from outside. Regardless of intentions, efforts made, and money invested, this experience in Afghanistan has collapsed after twenty years

      on the failure of interference in internal affairs

    10. As you know, Qatar has spared no effort in helping to evacuate thousands of individuals and families of various nationalities during the past weeks. This was our humanitarian duty

      humanitarian assistance to Afghan people

    11. The international community bears responsibility for achieving a comprehensive and just peaceful settlement of the Palestinian cause by establishing a Palestinian state on the 1967 borders with East Jerusalem as its capital, alongside the State of Israel, and ending the occupation of Arab lands, and a just solution to the refugee issue. This is what the international community has agreed upon for decades, yet it has not found its way towards implementation despite the risks posed by this issue if it has remained unresolved.

      Israel-Palestine conflict

    12. The issue of conflicts has kept the United Nations busy and placed many burdens on it since its foundation. Unfortunately, the Middle East region is a source of a large part of these burdens. Hence, Qatar considers contributing to the field of peaceful resolution of conflicts, including putting forward concepts of collective security, as one of its priorities. As there is no security, stability, development or decent human life under conflicts.

      conflicts in the Middle East

    13. as we have continued to provide medical supplies and cater for other needs related to tackling the pandemic through the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (Gavi) and providing support to the World Health Organization and the Humanitarian Initiative to provide vaccines for the most vulnerable groups and the countries most in need.
    14. pandemic of fake news, conspiracy theories and unprecedented skepticism about the feasibility of vaccines that also swept the world during this pandemic, which still hinders the necessary spread of vaccines against the backdrop of the continuation of this pandemic.

      on misinformation and fake news

    15. necessity of equitable distribution of vaccines,

      equal access to vaccines

    16. This difficult test, which humanity is continuing to face, has revealed the flaws and vulnerabilities in our collective security system, meanwhile it has inspired us with many lessons, namely, the importance of balancing the concern for people's health and maintaining theeconomic cycle that secures at the same time their livelihoods, as well as the importance of integration between the indispensable role of the State within its borders, on the one hand, and its role in confronting cross-border issues and joint commitments to confront challenges, crises and disasters, on the other hand

      Covid-19 revealed the flaws of the collective security system

    1. Colombia enfrenta la pandemia, actúa frente a la acción climática y, a suvez, atiende la peor crisis migratoria que golpea al planeta: la crisis de millones de venezolanos que huyen de la narco dictadura y de la infamia.El trabajo con la Organización de las Naciones Unidas y la Oficina del Doctor Filipo Grandi, Alto Comisionado para los Refugiados, nos muestra grandes avances, como la de brindar Estatus de Protección Temporal a más de un millón doscientos mil migrantes venezolanos que viven en nuestro país

      "...the crisis of millions of Venezuelans fleeing the narco dictatorship and infamy. The United Nations and the Office of Doctor Filipo Grandi, High Commissioner for Refugees, show us great progress, such as providing Temporary Protected Status to more than 1,200,000 Venezuelan migrants living in our country."

    2. Somos un país que tan solo representa el 0,6 por ciento de las emisiones globales del CO2, pero que se encuentra entre los más amenazados por los efectos del cambio climático. Nuestra acción requiere compromiso, AUDACIA y ejercer un liderazgo con el ejemplo.Por esto, llegaremos a Glasgow, a la Cop26, con el compromiso de reducir nuestras emisiones de gases efecto invernadero en un 51 por ciento para el año 2030, y, también, alcanzar la carbono neutralidad en el año 2050.

      Somos un país que tan solo representa el 0,6 por ciento de las emisiones globales del CO2, pero que se encuentra entre los más amenazados por los efectos del cambio climático. Nuestra acción requiere compromiso, AUDACIA y ejercer un liderazgo con el ejemplo.Por esto, llegaremos a Glasgow, a la Cop26, con el compromiso de reducir nuestras emisiones de gases efecto invernadero en un 51 por ciento para el año 2030, y, también, 919 / 5000 Translation results We are a country that only represents 0.6 percent of global CO2 emissions, but is among the most threatened by the effects of climate change. Our action requires commitment, BOLDNESS and leading by example, which is why we will come to Glasgow, at Cop26, with a commitment to reduce our greenhouse gas emissions by 51 percent by 2030, and also achieve carbon neutrality in 2050.

    3. DEBATE GENERAL –PRESIDENTE DE LA REPUBLICA DE COLOMBIA (S.E. IVAN DUQUE MARQUEZ)09/21/21Estos adelantos que surgen del esfuerzo y de la responsabilidad fiscal, nos permiten defender los logros sociales. Logramos la más importante reforma social de este siglo en Colombiay la aprobación de la más importante reforma fiscal,en materia de recaudo, que llega al 1,8 por ciento de nuestro Producto Interno Bruto, fortaleciendo, con ello,la regla fiscal de endeudamiento y la reducción del déficit, estableciendo una senda para estabilizar las finanzas públicas y asegurar una amplia red de protección social. Este ha sido un esfuerzo alcanzado sin populismo y sin afectar la competitividad de nuestras empresas.Estos logros en materia de salud, atención social y estabilidad fiscal se integran al Compromiso por Colombia, nuestra agenda de reactivación.Coninversiones privadas, públicasy público-privadas, ya muestra resultados económicosque alcanzan los mejores índices en el segundo trimestre de este año, el mejor de este siglo, por lo que avanzamos hacia un crecimiento superior al siete por ciento enel presente año 2021. Este New Deal colombiano es la mejor forma de recuperar el rumbo que la pandemia trajo a la Agenda 2030 y, además, nos acerca y nos orienta al cumplimiento de los objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible.Hoy hago un llamado global. Son muchos los países emergentes que frente a la amenaza del covid han aumentado su endeudamiento y su déficit fiscal. Muchos no han empezado a tramitar las reformas fiscales necesarias para pagar los gastos de emergencia, y hoy son evaluados por calificadoras de riesgo con ojos y criterios pre pandémicos. Frente a los altos niveles de endeudamiento y a las necesidades existentes, se requiere un consenso mundial liderado por el Fondo Monetario Internacional y los bancos multilaterales de desarrollo, que establezca nuevos criterios de riesgo mínimo fiscal durante la etapa de reactivación post covid.

      I am making a global call. There are many emerging countries that, in the face of the threat of covid, have increased their indebtedness and their fiscal deficit. Many have not begun to process the fiscal reforms necessary to pay for emergency expenses, and today they are evaluated by risk rating agencies with pre-pandemic eyes and criteria. Faced with the high levels of indebtedness and the existing needs, a global consensus led by the International Monetary Fund and the multilateral development banks is required, which establishes new criteria of minimum fiscal risk during the post-covid reactivation stage.

    4. Este New Deal colombiano es la mejor forma de recuperar el rumbo que la pandemia trajo a la Agenda 2030 y, además, nos acerca y nos orienta al cumplimiento de los objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible.

      economic recovery

    5. En la atención de los más vulnerables hemos actuado con determinación y creatividad, inspirados en retomar la senda de la agenda 2030.
    6. Si se mantienen atrasos en la distribución equitativa de vacunas para todas las naciones, nos exponemoscomo humanidad, a que nuevas variables, puedan atacarnos con mayor ferocidad. La inmunidad global requiere de la solidaridad para que no exista acaparamiento de unos,frente a la necesidad de otros.

      If there are delays in the equitable distribution of vaccines for all nations, we as humanity expose ourselves to new variables that could attack us with greater ferocity. Global immunity requires solidarity so that there is no hoarding of some, in the face of the need of others.

    7. Nos unimos al mecanismo covax, asumiendo un liderazgo regional en coordinación con la Organización Mundial de la Salud y la Organización Panamericanade la Salud.Hoy convoco a la comunidad internacional a fortalecer el multilateralismo en materia de salud y avanzar en la equidad para la distribución de lasvacunas. ES nuestro deber moral.

      We join the covax mechanism, assuming regional leadership in coordination with the World Health Organization and the Pan American Health Organization. Today I call on the international community to strengthen multilateralism in health matters and advance equity for the distribution of vaccines . IT IS our moral duty.

    8. Las brechasexistentesentre las naciones, respecto al proceso de vacunación son inauditas. Mientras que algunas naciones adquieren un número de dosis adicionales para seis o siete veces su población y anuncian terceras dosis de refuerzo, otras no han aplicado ni una sola dosis que les inyecte esperanza

      The gaps between nations regarding the vaccination process are unheard of. While some nations acquire a number of additional doses for six or seven times their population and announce third booster doses, others have not applied a single dose that gives them hope.

    9. Hemos observado fallas del multilateralismo para responder de manera equitativa y articulada a los momentos más agudos.

      We have observed failure of multilateralism to respond in an equitable and articulate way to the most acute moments.

    10. tecnología con el Internet de las cosas, la inteligencia artificial, la ciberseguridad, la computación en la nube y las aplicaciones,nos revelanque los avances de la virtualidad son oportunidades de desarrollo humano.

      IoT, AI, cybersecurity, cloud computing

    11. El covid -19 irrumpió de manera abrupta en nuestras vidas. Cambió nuestra cotidianidad, nuestra interacción y nos arrebató seres queridos. Este virus letal ha puesto a prueba nuestras emociones para entender, HOY MÁS QUE NUNCA, cuánto vale el abrazo de un padre y el de una madre, cuánto significa compartir en familia, cuánto nos llena unencuentro amigable inesperado
    1. From famine to pandemics to terrorism, the United Nations is the most important global platform for deliberation and decision-making to solve the world’s most important challenges.
    2. We want to ensure the safety of the people, the protection and realization of the rights of women and girls. And that steps are taken to form an inclusive and representative government for the people.

      protection of women and girls and other vulnerable groups in Afghanistan

    3. Despite decades of United Nations’efforts, the Palestinian people have yet to see justice.

      on Palestine

    4. We cannot be complacent to the growing threat posed by extremist interpretations of religious texts.

      religious extremism

    5. We have put forward an ambitious plan to reach net-zero by 2030, whichwe hope to achieve withinternational support
    6. Addressing the climate emergency requires a break from the lacklustrebusiness as usual practices that currently dominate the global climate change regime. It requirescountries to adopt more stringent measures to halt their emissions. It needs the world’s wealthy nations to help smaller nations receive the support in the form of capacity building, technology transfers and financial resources to ramp up their defences in the climate fight. It also requires us to give up our addiction to fossil fuels and adopt cleaner,smarter technologies for our energy use.

      Measures to address climate changes

    7. I carry in my hand, the words of young Maldivian children who have written to me asking me to share their pleas for our world’s climate, with this assembly.18.These are pleas to protect the vulnerable environment that they call home. The home where they will grow up in. The home where they hope to achieve their dreams. This is the collective calling of generations to come. We must listen.

      Pleas to protect the environment

    8. he state of environmental ruin small island states endure now, will without a doubt catch up with bigger nations sooner than later. There is no guarantee of survival for any one nation in a world where the Maldivescease to exist.

      Domino effect; strong words

    9. Existential threat”, “cease to exist”, “climate vulnerable”, “risk of disappearing”, “loss of identity”, “ecological refugees” are all phrases commonly tossed around to describe the plight of Maldivians, and other island states like us would face if the current trends continue unabated.

      Phrases used to depict dreadful consequences of climate change

    10. That the past five years have been the hottest on record since records started in the mid-nineteenth century. Therate of sea-level rise has tripled in comparison to the period, 1901 to 1970. We have already caused a 1.1 degree Celsius increase in warming of the planet. The recommendations are alarming given their urgency -how global emissions need to be reduced by 45% by 2030, and reach net-zero by 2050, to limit warming to 1.5 degrees.

      Staggering data on climate change

    11. There is overwhelming scientific evidence that the climate emergency would be catastrophic to humanity. The report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change published mere weeks ago was a shockingreiteration of what we have known for long.
    12. Vaccine equity is of paramount importance in this regard.
    13. We have vaccinated95% of all school children, and 85% of all residents in the Maldives. Schools have resumed. Businesses have restarted. Our borders have been reopened, opening the doors to our resorts.

      vaccination rate

    14. It set back years of schooling for our beloved children.

      COVID-19's impact on education

    15. Covid-19 pandemic was a challenge without precedent. Our economy relies on welcoming tourists to these shores. We import nearlyeverything from food to medicine to the materials we build our shelters with

      impact of COVID-19 economy

    16. Namely, that in today’s world, we are bound together. We must work together, in solidarity, in unity, to achieve our ambitions together.

      on unity and togetherness

    17. Covid-19 pandemic has pushed our progress back years. The adverse impacts of climate change are increasing. The steady growth of the world’s population is also increasing the presence of famine. And the menace of terrorism remains one of the biggest challenges we face today.

      main issues, COVID-19, climate, poverty&hunger, terrorism

    18. 3self-determination and democracy to reign supreme; hope of a world where people oppressed under the yoke of colonial rule and other forms of oppression were rendered free

      focus on self-determination of nations

    19. Today, 56 years since then, as President of the Republic of Maldives, I address the presidency of this General Assembly in our mother tongue. Our mother tongue, Dhivehi, the language we take pride in and is close to our hearts.

      Multilingualism in the UNGA

  4. May 2021
    1. In this situation, the proletariat, of Russia is faced with a twofold or, rather, a two-sided task: to combat nationalism of every kind, above all, Great-Russian nationalism; to recognise, not only fully equal rights, for all nations in general, but also equality of rights as regards polity, i.e., the right of nations to self-determination, to secession. And at the same time, it is their task, in the interests of a successful struggle against all and every kind, of nationalism among all nations, to preserve the unity of the proletarian struggle and the proletarian organisations, amalgamating these organisations into a close-knit international association, despite bourgeois strivings for national exclusiveness.
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    1. he English working class will never be free until Ireland is freed from the English yoke. Reaction in England is strengthened and fostered by the enslavement of Ireland
    2. However, it so happened that the English working class fell under the influence of the liberals for a fairly long time, became an appendage to the liberals, and by adopting a liberal-labour policy left itself leaderless. The bourgeois liberation movement in Ireland grew stronger and assumed revolutionary forms.
    3. At first Marx thought that Ireland would not be liberated by the national movement of the oppressed nation, but by the working-class movement of the oppressor nation.
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    1. recognition of the right of all nations to self-determination, since bourgeois-democratic reform is-not yet completed and since working-class democracy consistently, seriously and sincerely (and not in a liberal, Kokoshkin fashion) fights for equal rights for nations; then, a close, unbreakable alliance in the class struggle of the proletarians of all nations in a given state, throughout all the changes in its history, irrespective of any reshaping of the frontiers of the individual states by the bourgeoisie.
    2. This Congress declares that it stands for the full right of all nations to self-determination [Selbstbestimmungsrecht] and expresses its sympathy for the workers of ever country now suffering under the yoke of military, national or other absolutism. This Congress calls upon the workers of all these countries to join the ranks of the class-conscious [Klassenbewusste—those who understand their class interests] workers of the whole world in order jointly to fight for the defeat of international capitalism and for the achievement of the aims of international Social-Democracy.”[1]
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    1. he close alliance between the Norwegian and Swedish workers, their complete fraternal class solidarity, gained from the Swedish workers’ recognition of the right of the Norwegians to secede. This convinced the Norwegian workers that the Swedish workers were not infected with Swedish nationalism, and that they placed fraternity with the Norwegian proletarians above the privileges of the Swedish bourgeoisie and aristocracy.
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    1. Insofar as the bourgeoisie of the oppressed nation fights the oppressor, we are always, in every case, and more strongly than anyone else, in favour, for we are the staunchest and the most consistent enemies of oppression. But insofar as the bourgeoisie of the oppressed nation stands for its own bourgeois nationalism, we stand against.
    2. assesses any national demand, any national separation, from the angle of the workers’ class struggle. This call for practicality is in fact merely a call for uncritical acceptance of bourgeois aspirations.
    3. Failing to grasp this, Rosa Luxemburg, by her misguided eulogy of practicality, has opened the door wide for the opportunists, and especially for opportunist concessions to Great-Russian nationalism.
    4. demand “abstract” equality; they demand, as a matter of principle, that there should be no privilege
    5. negative demand for recognition of the right to self-determination, without giving guarantees to any nation, and without undertaking to give anything at the expense of another nation.
    6. in practice it leads to subordinating the proletariat to the bourgeoisie’s policy
    7. The proletariat is opposed to all privileges, to all exclusiveness
    8. in opposition to the practicality of the bourgeoisie that the proletarians advance their principles in the national question; they always give the bourgeoisie only conditional support.
    9. the proletariat’s policy in the national question (as in all others) supports the bourgeoisie only in a certain direction, but it never coincides with the bourgeoisie’s policy. The working class supports the bourgeoisie only in order to secure national peace (which the bourgeoisie cannot bring about completely and which can be achieved only with complete democracy)
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    1. he Great Russians occupy a vast, unbroken stretch of territory, and number about 70,000,000. The specific features of this national state are: first, that “subject peoples” (which, on the whole, comprise the majority of the entire population—57 per cent) inhabit the border regions; secondly, the oppression of these subject peoples is much stronger here than in the neighbouring states (and not even in the European states alone); thirdly, in a number of cases the oppressed nationalities inhabiting the border regions have compatriots across the border, who enjoy greater national independence (suffice it to mention the Finns, the Swedes, the Poles, the Ukrainians and the Rumanians along the western and southern frontiers of the state); fourthly, the development of capitalism and the general level of culture are often higher in the non-Russian border regions than in the centre. Lastly, it is in the neighbouring Asian states that we see the beginning of a phase of bourgeois revolutions and national movements which are spreading to some of the kindred nationalities within the borders of Russia.
    2. a striving on the part of the Hungarians and then of the Czechs, not for separation from Austria, but, on the contrary, for the preservation of Austria’s integrity, precisely in order to preserve national independence, which might have been completely crushed by more rapacious and powerful neighbours! Owing to this peculiar situation, Austria assumed the form of a dual state, and she is now being transformed into a triple state (Germans, Hungarians, Slays).
    3. the profound difference in the relations between the nationalities in Austria and those in Russia is particularly important for the question we are concerned with.