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  1. Last 7 days
    1. The EU's Council Conclusions, which were published on 18 July, introduce a holistic approach in digital diplomacy. This is a significant shift away from cybersecurity being the main focus for the European External Action Service (EEAS) for a long period.

      The EEAS includes standardisation, human rights, as well as other digital policy topics, in its holistic approach. The Council's Conclusions integrate both the EU's internal and external digital policies and establish links between green diplomacy and cyber diplomacy.

      However, the Council Conclusions maintain a confusing situation in relation to the organisation and management of the EU’s digital diplomacy. Council's conclusions mention Cyber Diplomacy Networks and Digital Diplomacy Networks as the two main implementation tools of EU's Digital Diplomacy.

      The dual approach of Cyber (mainly security) as well as Digital (other elements of digital foreign policies) should be reconciled using one organisational structure as it has been done by the United States among other actors.

      The Council Conclusions of EU are technology neutral. Except for two paragraphs dealing with data, the Council Conclusions do not mention AI, Blockchain, Metaverse, or any other specific technologies.

      The conclusion barely mentions the digital economy and trade. The conclusion is timid about mentioning openness and digital commons, which are important pillars of its digitalization efforts.

      Most surprising, however, is the absence of a single reference to the Internet Governance Forum.

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  2. Jul 2022
    1. Title: Resolution on Safeguarding Humanitarian Data

      Resolution on Safeguarding Humanitarian Data addresses the centrality of data for humanitarian actions. It reiterates previous initiatives and resolutions of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement.

      Here are a few key points from the resolution:

      • unauthorised access to data could undermine the principle of impartiality of humanitarian organisations;
      • states and other actors should respect humanitarian purpose of data;
      • work on a digital emblem as a sign to identify data of humanitarian organisations;
      • apply humanitarian principles online as it is done offline.

      Data breaches put humanitThe data breach against the Movement discovered this year has highlighted a growing trend in cyber-operations targeted at humanitarian organisations. Data breaches risk causing severe consequences for the people those organisations serve – those that are already among the most vulnerable. The Movement will reaffirm its commitment and responsibility to implement data protection rules and cyber security measures. It will also emphasize the urgency of protecting humanitarian data and send a call from the Movement to States and other actors to protect humanitarian organisations online as they do offline.

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  3. Jun 2022
    1. Title: How to link digitalisation and UN Security Council?

      Excerpt: US ambassador identifies 3 areas of digitalisation of UN Security Council: getting more data and information; apps for humanitarian aid; helping peacekeeping missions

      Cybersecurity is often in news. But, there are many more impacts of digitalisation on security of modern society from food and climate, to supply chains and peacekeeping.

      This holistic impact of digitalisation on modern society is behind the US push for higher relevance of digitalisation on the agenda of the UN Security Council.

      In the Economist article, the US ambassador to the UN Linda Thomas-Greenfield identifies three steps for strenghtening links between digitalisation and security at the UN UN Security Council:

      Firstly, DATA gathered form satelites to smart tractors can help more informed and proactive actions ahead of climate, food and political crisis.

      Secondly, DIGITAL TOOLS can help in hnadling crisis from distribution of humanitarian assistance to helping those in the need of assistance.

      Thirdly, DIGITAL PEACE can be strenghtend via use of social media, GPS monitoring and other tools in the UN peacekeeping missions.

      As cross cutting activities, the article calls for wider access to the Internet, digital literacy and development of new apps and tools for crisis management and humanitarian assistance.

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    1. “guardrails”

      Guardrails is part of new language in global diplomacy

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  4. May 2022
    1. Titlte: Need for more innovation in South African diplomacy

      South African diplomacy need to be more innovative in order to adjust to the post-pademic era. It was the underlying message of President Cyril Ramaphosa, President of South Africa during the Annual conference of heads of missions of the Department of International Relations and Cooperations.

      As a practical step towards more innovative diplomacy, President Ramaphosa said 'We need to adapt to digital diplomacy and host targeted seminars to sell South Africa.'.

      The Annual Conference of South African diplomacy stressed three priority areas for innovation in diplomacy:

      1. to attract tourism, trade, and investment by using innovative tools and approaches.

      2. to strengthen people-to-people relations towards cultivating tolerance, and cultural understanding. The main focus should be on youth development programmes.

      3. to strengthen public diplomacy via the use of social media and other advanced tools and approaches.

      Source: City Press

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  5. Apr 2022
    1. f i g u r e1R&D expenditures of selected countries, 2000–2019s o u r c e: “Main Science and Technology Indicators,” Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), https://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx?DataSetCode=MSTI_PUB

      to use for science diplomacy comparison

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  6. Feb 2022
    1. 21 guidelines for the long-term sustainability of outer space activities.

      What are 21 guidelines for COPUOS.

      ||sorina||||nikolabATdiplomacy.edu|| We need to include this into our page.

    2. LEO, the area of outer space around Earth that includes all orbits below 2,000km, andis the home of the International Space Station and of thousands of other satellites,is rapidly becoming a hazardous area due tospace debris and inoperable spacecraft orbiting at very high speeds.

      What is Low Earth Orbit? Low Earth Orbit (LEO) includes all orbits below 2.000 km, where most satellites are located including the International Space Station. In LEO there is high risk of collisions due to space debris.

    3. “new space”4

      What is definition of new space? New space is about private companies, SMEs and start-ups that develop novel space technologies and applications.

    4. Space Traffic Management (STM)

      this is new term to be used.

      Terminology.

    5. An EU Approach for Space Traffic Management An EU contribution addressing a global challenge

      Steph alerted me about this initiative. In EU style they will try to fill the regulatory gap. Sorina and Nikola, let us follow-up on it.

      ||StephanieBP|| ||nikolabATdiplomacy.edu|| ||sorina||

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    1. without clearly defined rules of the road for such interactions.

      Second generation of SpaceX constellations increases risk for satellite collision. In the letter to the US Federal Communication Commission NASA and NSF outline risks and call for 'defined rules of the road' for space traffic.

      ||sorina||||nikolabATdiplomacy.edu||

    2. ~25,000 total objects

      Total number of objects in orbit.

      ||Jovan||

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    1. Geomagnetic storm can affect sattelites and create space-waste. Here is an example about the SpaceX satellites.

      ||nikolabATdiplomacy.edu|| possible box to be used on the website or info for course.

    2. a geomagnetic storm

      What is a geomagnetic storm?

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    1. Elon Mask's SpaceX network with 2000 Starlink satellites cause the following threats"

      1. Satellite collisions According to Space.com 50% close encounters between two satellites in 2021 involved Starlink satellites. Triggered by this risk, China initiated the process with the UN Office for Outer Space Affairs.

      2. Environment damage Such concentration of satellites creates various types of pollutions: light pollution, space junk, chemicals in the atmosphere, etc.

      3. Changing night sky and interfering with astronomy One in 15 sources of lights are satellites. Such 'light pollution' will make much more difficult for astronomers to spot asteroids and do their research.

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    1. guardrails

      ||Andrej|| 'guardrailes' are used more and more in global and diplomatic lingo.

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  7. Jan 2022
    1. Poetry criticism:

      Ai and Poetry.

      Bi and Aldo, I know that you have been interested in poetry. Here is an interesting paragraph explaining that meaning of poetry could be reduced to AI challenge via limited possibility to explain our emotional experience while listening poetry.

      ||biscottATdiplomacy.edu||||aldo.matteucciATgmail.com||||Jovan||

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    1. ||nikolabATdiplomacy.edu||||VladaR|| This text provides a good summary of space diplomacy including the major initatives and positions of the key actors

    2. The other main multilateral body where one might expect to see negotiations on space arms control, the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva, has been bogged down in disagreement over what the real threat to space is. Russia, China and their allies argue that the focus should be on banning the placement of space-to-Earth weapons in orbit. The United States and its allies instead argue that threatening behavior in space—such as uncoordinated close approaches to another country’s satellite, or the deliberate creation of large amounts of debris—is what is destabilizing. Furthermore, the two sides are split over whether the steps taken should be a legally binding treaty or voluntary guidelines and political norms of behavior.

      Position of the main actors on space diplomacy.

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    1. Acknowledgements

      ||kat_hone|| Here is study on digital diplomacy and Africa. On the first glance, it looks serious. Let us annotate it together

      ||VladaR||||Katarina_An|| you may see if there is something useful for your projects with GFCE.

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    1. The EU should respond to the challenge by focusing on four pillars of European Green Deal diplomacy: trade, bilateral financial agreements, multilateralism through the United Nations, and domestic implementation of its Fit for 55 climate package.

      EU is basing its green deal diplomacy on the 4 pillars:

      • trade,
      • bilateral financial agreements,
      • multilateralism through the United Nations, and
      • domestic implementation of EU Green Deal.
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    1. According to Li, the moon simulator could also be used to test whether new technology such as 3D printing could be used to build structures on the lunar surface. It could help assess whether a permanent human settlement could be built there, including issues like how well the surface traps heat, he said.

      3D printing on the moon

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    1. The US, Russia and China are all experimenting with new weapons, such as orbiting hypersonic glide vehicles capable of launching nuclear missiles from anywhere in the heavens. Russia caused anger in late 2021 with its reckless test of an anti-satellite missile. Others will follow suit, potentially threatening global communications. Not to be outdone, Nasa is planning to knock a giant asteroid off course in September by orchestrating a head-on collision, using a spacecraft launched on a rocket built by Elon Musk’s SpaceX. The US calls this “planetary defence” – but the technology plainly has offensive applications. Some will deem this progress, others a giant backward step for mankind.

      militarisaiton of space

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    1. This is an article on failures of science.

      ||kat_hone||

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    1. 79 telephone calls with leaders of foreign countries and international organizations, and attended 40 major diplomatic events via video link.

      It is an interesting statistics on 'virtual diplomacy'. Chinese President had much more interactions than in traditional and physical space.

      It is useful article to follow-up on Chinese diplomacy.

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    1. For two decades, the space station has been a symbol of diplomatic triumph between the U.S. and Russia, typically insulated from tensions on Earth. Russian astronauts traveled to orbit on the space shuttle, and when it stopped flying, the Russian Soyuz spacecraft became NASA’s only ride to orbit for nearly a decade. The station also requires the two space powers’ cooperation to function: The Russian segment depends on electricity generated by American solar panels, while the station as a whole depends on Russian equipment to control its orbit.

      ||nikolabATdiplomacy.edu|| An example of successful cooperation in space diplomacy

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    1. By November 2021, China had provided over 1.7 billon doses of Covid-19 vaccine to more than 110 countries and organizations, including 50 African countries and the AU Commission, and is striving to provide an aggregate total – two billion doses by the end of 2021. In addition, it donated US$100 million to COVAX, which aims at ensuring all countries have access to a safe, effective vaccine. 

      China's contribution to Africa in 2021

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    1. Asked about the near-collisions with the China Space Station (CSS) between July and October, Foreign Ministry spokesman Zhao Lijian confirmed that his country had lodged a formal complaint with the United Nations

      Colision in the space

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  8. Dec 2021
    1. “To clarify, the paragraph about Xinjiang in the letter is only for expressing the original intention of compliance and legality, not its intention or position.”

      ||Andrej||||Dragana||||Andrej|| This is a very interesting sentence by which Intel tries to back-paddle from pressure from China....

      "expressing the original intention of compliance and legality, not its intention or position'

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    1. Last-minute pressure from China and India resulted in heavily watered-down language in the final agreement: Rather than calling on countries to accelerate the “phasing out of coal and subsidies for fossil fuels,” the agreement’s final language states the goal of “accelerating efforts toward the phase-down of unabated coal power and inefficient fossil fuel subsidies.” This is not simply a matter of semantics. The text is littered with phrases like “requests” and “calls upon” and “invites” and “encourages,” starkly reminding us that the pact is not binding.

      ||Andrej||||Dragana||This could be an interesting case study for our language courses or for the course on Language of climate change diplomacy (future short course) which can analyse framing of discussion on climate change. Similar short courses (10 days) could be organised for AI, 5G, etc.

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    1. In October 2021, the Center organized its first event – the roundtable discussion “AI Ethics: Searching for Consensus.” In December, it hosted the conference “AI Global Dimension: From Discussion to Practice.” The Center works in both Russian and English languages. It is also tasked with publishing research results in specialized media outlets.

      Do we know anything on these events?

      ||Jovan||||TerezaHorejsova||||AndrijanaG||||VladaR||||StephanieBP||

    2. Moscow State Institute of International Relations. In October, it inaugurated its AI Center, which is aimed at researching ethical problems and foreign economic relations surrounding the technology, as well as boosting scientific collaboration with investigative centers from Russia and abroad.

      ||Jovan|| To see how we can cooperate with MGIMO on tis project.

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    1. An interesting article of shift from propellers to fins by using metaphors from nature.

      New fins-supported ships may enter new phase in marine development.

      It was interesting that development of fins propulsion came of reasonable compromise between stiffness and flexibility. it remains applicable to many fields, including Diplo's activities.

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    1. They often have commercial attachés in key embassies, and they sometimes encourage their SMEs to attend trade fairs abroad in order to promote their products and services.

      Maybe to check what is impact of digital in their work.

      ||kat_hone||

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    1. An interesting update of seeing science diplomacy and search for dark matter from outer space (observatory in Chile) and particle (LHC in Geneva) ||kat_hone||||nikolabATdiplomacy.edu||

    2. to “record the greatest timelapse of the universe ever made”.

      this is linked to space as well ||nikolabATdiplomacy.edu||

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    1. One-third of surveyed women working in tech said they were interrupted or ignored more often in virtual meetings than in person.

      Important for hybrid meetings. ||ArvinKamberi||

    2. hybrid

      Hybrid as term is gaining momentum.

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    1. Global health diplomacy is what links health and international relations to address health security. It was this diplomacy that delivered political commitments from many corners of the world to push for COVID-19 medicines and essentials, the development of new partnerships and initiatives, and the creation of COVAX the global scheme to vaccinate people in lower-income countries and ACT-Accelerator, dubbed the fastest, most coordinated and successful global effort in history to develop tools to fight a disease .

      global health diplomacy success.

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    1. the future is “hybrid

      ||Andrej|| Let us analyse with Bi the use of term 'hybrid'. Was it the word of 2021. What about different uses for cars, diplomacy, work, etc.

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    1. A newly created Bureau of Cyberspace and Digital Policy will focus on international cyberspace security, digital policy and digital freedom. Meanwhile, the new special envoy for critical and emerging technology will cover topics such as artificial intelligence and quantum computing. Secretary of State Blinken announced these initiatives in a speech to the Foreign Service Institute, specifying that the leaders of both new structures will report to Deputy Secretary Wendy Sherman for their first year.

      New digital diplomacy structure at the US State Deparatement

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    1. My impression is that when scientists communicate scientific information to the public, the difficulty of the concepts and complexity of the data create some barriers. For example, it is difficult for the public to understand the concepts of 1.5 °C and 2 °C of global average temperature rise, as described in the Sixth Assessment Report of the IPCC. These abstract concepts should be illustrated through real-life scenarios. For instance, scientists could explain that if the temperature rise exceeds 1.5 °C, some natural disasters which used to happen once in a century will likely occur every year. This explanation will make the temperature rise easier to understand and could help increase support for action.

      Advise of Chinese diplomat about the way how science facts should be communicated

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  9. Nov 2021
    1. began to go wrong precisely when people started losing that freedom to imagine and enact other forms of social existence.”

      Crucial point.

    2. how things could have been different and, perhaps, still might be.

      Counter-factual history

    3. to enlarge our political imagination by revitalizing the possibilities of the distant past.

      good point for any historical analysis.

      ||Jovan||

    4. Societies were categorized by evolutionary stage on the basis of their mode of food production and economic organization, with full-fledged states taken to be the pinnacle of progress.

      it is marxist evolutionary history from primitive societies via slavery and feudalism and capitalism to communism (via socialism).

    5. Writing, which first emerged in the service of accounting, abetted the sort of control and surveillance upon which primitive racketeers came to depend. Where hunter-gatherers had hunted and gathered only enough to meet the demands of the day, agricultural communities created history’s first surpluses, and the extraction of tributes propped up rent-seeking élites and the managerial pyramids—not to mention standing armies—necessary to maintain their privilege. The rise of the arts, technology, and monumental architecture was the upside of the creation and immiseration of a peasant class.

      This sounds like wording from any books of marxist history. It is interesting to see how 'liberal history' is recycling marxist historical analysis.

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  10. Oct 2021
    1. What is Water Diplomacy? Water diplomacy can be defined as the use of diplomatic instruments to existing or emerging disagreements and conflicts over shared water resources with the aim to solve or mitigate those for the sake of cooperation, regional stability, and peace.

      def

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    1. n increasing number of health challenges can no longer be resolved at the technical level only – they require political negotiations and solutions, and often need to involve a wide range of actors. Health diplomacy takes place at many levels. Global health diplomacy focuses on those health issues that need the cooperation of many countries to address issues of common concern, but health diplomacy can also play a central role at the regional, bilateral and national level.

      interaction on a global level is needed

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    1. Education Diplomacy builds relationships across sectors, stakeholders, and borders using the skills of diplomacy to cultivate trust, shape consensus, and innovate solutions to education challenges.

      definition on Education diplomacy n2

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    1. Education Diplomacy is a part of a larger modern or “New Diplomacy” movement that has been growing over the last two decades. It recognizes the expanding participation of individuals and groups in topics of global concern and influencing relationships between nations, across sectors, and among respective stakeholders

      possible definition ( one of )

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    1. scientific and data integrity.

      New elements for diplomacy - scientific and data integrity. It will be inevetable tension between diplomacy as art and diplomacy as science.

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    1. Climate diplomacy also means prioritising climate action with partners worldwide – in diplomatic dialogues, public diplomacy and external policy instruments. This includes reaching out to partner countries bilaterally and making the case for more ambitious climate action.

      meaning

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    1. According to John Ruggie, multilateralism refers to coordinating relations among three or more states in accordance with some principles or shared interests

      definition of multilateralism

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    1. Bilateral diplomacy is a key building block of international relations, covering relationships between the home country and individual foreign states, one at a time. It is the very core of managing foreign relations.

      ||Katarina_An||

      Types of diplomacy

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  11. Sep 2021
    1. We remain grateful to our immediate neighbours-India and China for their support in fighting the covid crisis. We also sincerely thank friendly countries, like United States, Britain, Japan and others for providing vaccines, critical medical equipment, and medicines in our fight against the pandemic
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    1. In the meantime, as a result of diplomatic initiatives taken at the bilateral level, Trinidad and Tobago and other members of the Caribbean Community received donations of WHO-approved vaccines from several Governments. We also received supplies via the COVAX facility and from the African Medical Supplies Platform
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    1. With the growing frequency of global health threats, this world family must come together and engage in more effective health diplomacy. We must ensure greater collaboration not just to end this pandemic but on an array of other health-related issues. These include expanding the public health capacity of nations, particularly by enhancing their access to relevant technology and knowledge.

      Expanding public health capacity by enhancing access to technology

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    1. Governments cannot urge people toget inoculated on the basis that the best vaccine is the available vaccine, andyet discriminate against vaccines that were not manufactured directly in North America and Europe.This would not only be a form of vaccine apartheid, it would defeat the objective of inoculating 70 per cent of the world’s peopleby this time next year.This discrimination must ceasenow before it becomes a norm by some developed countries. It is wrong; unjust, and patently unfair

      Vaccine apartheid

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    1. As a tiny island state at the confluence of key global shipping routes, heavily dependent on maritime trade, Singapore is an ardent advocate for the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea or UNCLOS.
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    1. Accordingly, Ethiopiastands ready to avail bilateral mechanismsand diplomatic solutionsto resolve the border dispute withSudan.
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    1. It is my government’s unwavering position that once national maritime zones are deposited with the United Nations, theyshould never be challenged. Rights must be respected irrespective of sea level rise. Thisproposal preserves the principles of equity, fairnessand justice of the Convention and recognizes UNCLOS principles of legal stability, security, certainty,and predictability
    2. Protecting the sovereignty of Solomon Islands’maritime zones remains important priorityof my government. We continue to worktowards the completion of the delimitation of all our maritime zonesin accordance with the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea
    3. The devastating impact ofplastic pollution onour fragile marine ecosystemsdemands a global binding agreementto reduce plastic pollution in our oceans. We support the establishment of such an Agreement
    4. I express my government’s sincere gratitude to our development partners that have assisted us in our response to the CVID-19 pandemic. I thank all donors andpartners to the COVAX Facility. I thank the governmentsof Australia, Indonesia, Japan, New Zealand, andthe People’s Republic of China. I also thankthe Asian Development Bank, the World Bank, the United Nations agencies and in particular, United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fundandthe World Health Organization, andour regional institutions for theirkind assistance and support
    1. As the science and the research haveshown, wemustalso see the oceansasplayinga vital role as a climate mitigator. Wesupport the development of a legallybindinginternational instrument on the conservation and sustainable useof marine biological diversity
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