147 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
  2. May 2022
    1. The ideal of a single, deeply integrated global trade system – embodied in the founding of the General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT) and the World Trade Organization (WTO) – no longer seems realistic.

      ||MariliaM|| Endo of WTO and GATT

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    1. ||ArvinKamberi|| Bitcoin as currency in the Central African Republic

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  3. Apr 2022
    1. Physical cash typically satisfies three functions of money: it is a unit of account, a means of exchange and a store of value

      Three functions of money.

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    1. The United States tends to follow a market-driven approach: companies form standards of their own volition and through their own partnerships, with little government attention. By contrast, the European Union and its member governments are more involved in the process.27And in China, most standard setting is government-led, and companies and academic entities receive state support for participation in international standardization.2

      Three approaches to standardisation processes.

    2. ETSI, Japan’s Association of Radio Industries and Businesses (ARIB) and Telecommunication Technology Committee (TTC), China Communications Standards Association (CCSA), Telecommunications Standards Development Society, India (TSDSI), South Korea’s Telecommunications Technology Association (TTA), and the Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions (ATIS) of the United States together formed the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) in 1998.

      How is 3GPP established in 1998.

    3. entralization allows it to take advantage of that voice, ensuring coordination among its commercial, academic, and government entities—both in developing standards (

      Important aspect of China's standardisation process.

    4. a framework blockchain standard project.

      ||sorina|| Do we have anything on this proposal?

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  4. Mar 2022
    1. CEO of Black Rock, one of the biggest global investment fund, declared the end of globalisation we know as an impact of the Ukraine war.

      On 24 March, Larry Fink wrote in his letter

      'companies and governments will also be looking more broadly at their dependencies on other nations. This may lead companies to onshore or nearshore more of their operations, resulting in a faster pull back from some countries.'

      He said that

      “Mexico, Brazil, the United States, or manufacturing hubs in Southeast Asia could stand to benefit”

      Black Rock will be focusing on digital currencies in the rapidly changing global economic environment.

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  5. Feb 2022
    1. Promoting digital governance will play a key role. This represents an important area of digital foreign policy and will allow for the creation of common rules in the digital space and strengthen both institutions and cooperation mecha-nisms.

      Useful clarity: Digital governance is about creating common rules for governing digital space (privacy, security).

      Digital foreign policy is a way to develop digital governance.

    2. The global COVID-19 crisis has highlighted that while new digital technologies can help us better understand and contain the spread of a pandemic, for example through the use of digital contact tracing, and while they underscore the importance of issues relating to technical standardisation and cross-border cooperation, these technologies also raise a number of questions, for example about application security and data protection.

      Balancing formulation: possibilities/chances vs risks/dangerous

      It is more on side of possibilities

      !check-balances

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    1. the Federal Ministry of Economics and Climate Action has a more cooperative approach toward the PRC than the Ministry of Interior, which views China increasingly through the lens of a hybrid threat.

      ||sorina||||TerezaHorejsova|| This provides an explanation why this ministry was initially 'worried' about our study as they thought that it was 'China bashing'

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    1. ||ArvinKamberi||||Pavlina||n Some interesting dynamics in the USA to follow

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    1. ||minam|| ||AndrijanaG|| Mina, please remove Libra and Diem from actors in our actor list.

      ||ArvinKamberi||

    2. This article provides a good survey of the failure of Facebook's 'monetary' experiments starting with Libra and followed by Diem.

      Facebook dropped the 'digital currency' project. Probably, they thought that this part of 'regulatory battle' could weaken them in other 'battles' around anti-trust, data, consumer protection.

      In particular, it could weaken their chances for the success of Metaverse project which is Facebook's ultimate battle for survival.

      Libra development was historical moment in Internet governance and digital policy since it was the first major occasion when tech platforms were not allowed to use 'ex post' approach (develop and regulate later on). This time regulators stopped them 'ex ante'.

    3. “I see this as the most pivotal battle in the crypto space over the next few years, stablecoins versus central bank-created digital currencies,”

      ||ArvinKamberi|| this is key battle to follow.

    4. Unlike cryptocurrencies such as bitcoin, the value of which is not tied to anything external, stablecoins are pegged to major currencies already in circulation, which is why proponents say they are more stable.

      I thought that it was enough for survival of this initiative since it could have solved 'monetary challenge'. But, they antagonised too many people to manage to succede.

    5. Regulators came away from an initial meeting with Facebook stunned that the company wasn’t more prepared to address concerns about money laundering, consumer protection and other potential financial risks

      Nobody mentiones potential risks for monetary policy of Central Banks which was, in my view, the main issue with Libra. Other issues could have been resolved easier.

      There was also 'regulatory arrogance' of Facebook which used to think of regulation post factum as afterthought. This time, it was different when they tried to challenge global financial system.

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    1. Cryptocurrencies and decentralised economy can have unintended consequences for those who have promoted them.

      ||ArvinKamberi||

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  6. Jan 2022
    1. released version 1.0 of its technical specification for digital provenance

      New industry standard for digital provenance of content. Can help address deepfakes.

    2. the Coalition for Content Provenance and Authenticity (C2PA)

      Another industry consortia working on standards and specifications: C2PA focused on content provenance and authenticity.

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    1. Finnish-US undersea cable to strengthen Europe’s digital trade with Asia

      Was it done on the purpose (click-bite)? It is a bit strange that Finnish-US cable strenghten trade between Europe and Asia.

      Please check if it (un)intentional and change if it is needed.

      ||AndrijanaG||||StephanieBP||||sorina||

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    1. Cryptocurrencies are developing slowly in Africa. Nigerian ban on cryptocurrencies raised a lot of attention. One area where cryptocurrencies may play an important role is transfer of remittances of a hug African diaspora transferring USD 42 billion annually. However, given volatility of cybercurrencies this posses the major risk.

    2. With Nigeria’s crypto ban dominating headlines throughout 2021,

      ||ArvinKamberi|| Is there any website which follows current situaton with banning/using cryptocurrency?

      How up-to-date is this map https://dig.watch/cryptocurrency-and-crypto-assets-mapping-regulation/

      Do we update it regularly?

      ||sorina||||Jovan||

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    1. ||sorina|| Matter is becoming connectivity standard for IoT. They aim to solve a problem that, in particular, IoT devices cannot communciate to each other due to the lack of connectivity.

      We may follow-up on this standard development.

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    1. Acknowledgements

      ||kat_hone|| Here is study on digital diplomacy and Africa. On the first glance, it looks serious. Let us annotate it together

      ||VladaR||||Katarina_An|| you may see if there is something useful for your projects with GFCE.

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    1. ||sorina|| China's 'Standard 2035' as outlined in the National Standardization Development (NSD) document has a few interesting angle:

      • anchoring standardisation development into green/sustainable agenda
      • influence on internatoinal standar develoment

      Sorina, is this article objective in coverage?

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    1. This is serious analysis of consuption of electrical energy for bitcoin mining. ||ArvinKamberi|| Can we enrich our DW cryptocurrency page with some information frm this website

      We should also use it for our pages on enviornment and digitalisation.

      ||JovanK||

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    1. Boosters touted digital currencies as a world-changing technology with the potential to create new economies and empower unbanked populations everywhere. Critics pointed to crypto's massive environmental footprint, as well as its popularity in online crime. The chasm between these views will be hard to bridge.

      Cryptocurrency will develop around two narratives. Blue sky will focus on new opporutunities, new economy, and financial inclusion. The opposite narrative will focus on misuse by criminals and envioronmental footprint created by mining cryptocurrency.

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    1. In 2016, as the standards were being sorted out for 5G, a clash emerged in trying to decide what error-correcting technique would be used for wireless signals. Qualcomm, based in San Diego, and other companies pushed for low-density parity checks (LDPC), which had been first described decades earlier but had yet to materialize commercially. Huawei, backed by other Chinese companies, pushed for a new technique in which it had invested a significant amount of time and energy that it called polar codes. A deadlock at the 3GPP meeting that November resulted in a split standard: LDPC would be used for radio channels that send user data and polar codes for channels that coordinated those user-data channels.

      This is an example of split in standardisation policy.

      ||VladaR||||sorina||

    2. As one example, equipment manufacturers (such as China's Huawei and ZTE) will probably push for standards that prioritize the distance a signal can travel, while minimizing the interference it experiences along the way. Meanwhile, device makers (like U.S. heavyweights Apple and Alphabet) will have more stake in standardizing signal modulations that drain their gadgets' batteries the least.

      Different positions on standardisation around 6G

      ||VladaR||||sorina||

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    1. the U.S. government passed a sweeping cybersecurity bill called the Internet of Things Cybersecurity Improvement Act of 2020 at the very tail end of that year.

      ||VladaR||||AndrijanaG|| Any follow-up on it?

    2. LoRa (short for “Long-Range, Low-Power”) seems to be winning out.

      ||sorina|| LoRa ('Long-Range, Low-Power') is becoming wirless standard for IoT

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  7. Dec 2021
    1. to promote interoperability—ie, no closed systems—as well as common standards.

      Push for open standards and interoperability

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    1. Here is an interesting article that may help us shape linking our e-commerce, economic diplomacy and African activities.

      ||TerezaHorejsova|| ||MariliaM|| We can check with ITC (they focus on SMEs) and CUTS if such programme on economic and trade diplomacy with focus on digital economy would make sens.

      ||kat_hone|| Should we add this aspect to digital foreign policy project?

      We may contact author of this text who is based in Paris for a potential event on this issue in 2022.

    2. Some African countries are already implementing ECD by mobilizing national public institutions and their diplomatic network to create opportunities

      ||kat_hone|| Anything coming on this aspect form digital foreign policy study?

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    1. As the boundary between financial firms and tech companies blurs further, and the value of amassing customer data increases, protecting privacy and security will be paramount.

      Privacy protection is gaining new relevance. ||Jovan||

    2. “decentralised-finance” (DeFi) applications

      ||ArvinKamberi|| new concept

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    1. a three-way fight for the future of finance—between the crypto-blockchain-DeFi crowd, more traditional technology firms and central banks—that will intensify in 2022.

      ||ArvinKamberi|| Could we update our cryptocurrency page and focus on these 3 trends

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    1. A newly created Bureau of Cyberspace and Digital Policy will focus on international cyberspace security, digital policy and digital freedom. Meanwhile, the new special envoy for critical and emerging technology will cover topics such as artificial intelligence and quantum computing. Secretary of State Blinken announced these initiatives in a speech to the Foreign Service Institute, specifying that the leaders of both new structures will report to Deputy Secretary Wendy Sherman for their first year.

      New digital diplomacy structure at the US State Deparatement

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  8. Oct 2021
  9. Sep 2021
    1. It is an important document outlining EU and USA cooperation in trade and technology field. I made the first series of comments and annotations. You can continue.

      There will be 10 working groups covering specific issues mainly related to technology. There are also separate annexes related to supply chains, AI, etc.

      A few higlightes:

      • ||VladaR|| many security aspects including security of supply chains, standards and security, security and enviornment.
      • ||VladaR||||sorina|| An interesting linkages between standards and e-commerce (focus on WTO)
      • List of almost all digital policy issues
      • Different views on AI

      ||StephanieBP|| The analysis of this document should be important part of Newsletter. Let us annotate and after that summarise it in one pager.

      ||Jovan||

    2. Climate and Clean Tech:

      This part is related to interplay between climate and tech.

      ||TerezaHorejsova||||Pavlina|| It is potentially relevant for the next Slovenia event and KAS study

    3. The Technology Standards working group is tasked to develop approaches for coordination and cooperation in critical and emerging technology standards including AI and other emerging technologies.

      Standardisation cooperation.

      ||sorina||

    1. Connectivity is lifeline for peace, progress, and prosperity. Connectivity forms a premise for enduring cooperation, deeper integration, building of trust and confidence among nations.Nepal attaches utmost priority to cooperation through connectivity and underlines the need to create a win-win situation between and among countries.
    2. WTO is not only about maintaining rules-based international trading order, it must also be a platform to enable the developing countries benefit from it with an enhanced level of international cooperation in the areas of aid for trade, technology transfer, and capacity building.
    3. The development potentials of South-South cooperation in terms of trade, investment and technology must be fully exploited.
    4. LDCs and LLDCs need reliable and sustainable financing, partnerships, and technology transfer to overcome their structural impedimentsto benefit from globalization.
    1. However, the misuse of digital technology can pose serious threats to the economy, national security, governance, and social stability. Therefore, we must develop appropriate mechanisms to protect and secure the integrity of our economies and societies and to minimize its use as a disruptive tool.
    2. we are sparing no effort to provide the necessary support and the enabling environment to fosterdiversification, through substantial transformation in the creative sector as well as in manufacturing, finance, medicine, security, commerce, agriculture and renewable energy. Our newly established Ministry of Digital Transformation is leading these efforts to create a competitive digitally - driven economy that will stimulategreater opportunities for all of our people.
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    1. И не стóит в этом контексте перекладывать ответственность с больной головы на здоровую, обвиняя Беларусь в развязывании гибридной войны против Европейского Союза, как об этом врали с этой высокой трибуны лидеры Польши, Литвы, Латвии инекоторых других стран.Даже простому обывателю понятно:10-миллионная Беларусьобъективно не может вести не только «гибридную войну», но и никакую войнус 500-миллионным Евросоюзом, даже если бы у нее и были мускулы Арнольда Шварценэггера.

      And in this context, it is not worth shifting responsibility from a sore head to a healthy one, accusing Belarus of unleashing a hybrid war against the European Union, as the leaders of Poland, Lithuania, Latvia and some other countries lied about it from this high rostrum. Belarus is objectively unable to wage not only a "hybrid war", but also no war against the 500-million-strong European Union, even if it had the muscles of Arnold Schwarzenegger.

    2. Наша странабольше года продолжает оставаться мишенью воинственного давлениясо стороны коллективного Запада. И всё лишь потому,что в Беларуси не удалось реализовать отшлифованный до совершенства сценарий очередной«цветной революции», приуроченной к президентским выборам. Сегодня против Беларуси развязана масштабная гибридная война по всем направлениям.

      Our country has been the target of militant pressure from the collective West for more than a year. And all this is only because Belarus failed to implement the polished to perfection scenario of the next “flower revolution” timed to coincide with the presidential elections. Today a large-scale hybrid war has been unleashed against Belarus in all directions.

    3. Негативная динамика в областиглобальной безопасности неослабно нарастает, в том числеза счет гибридных войн, злонамеренного и преступного использования современных информационных технологий, подпитывающих экстремизм и терроризм, и информационных фейков. Сегодняс помощью электронных гаджетов можно подорвать внутренний мир и спокойствие в любом государстве, а также отстранить от власти его руководство.

      The negative dynamics in the field of global security is growing steadily, including due to hybrid wars, malicious and criminal use of modern information technologies that fuel extremism and terrorism, and information fakes. Today, with the help of electronic gadgets, one can undermine the inner peace and tranquility in any state, as well as remove its leadership from power.

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    1. Some other components are ICTisation of schools,Integrated Taxation System, and electronic Patient Information management.On the other hand, our Central Bank is also piloting a project on digital Ngultrum, Bhutan’s currency, using block chain technology. This is to adapt with the overall ICT transformation and harness technology for a 21st century Bhutan.

      digitalised taxation system, use of ICTs in schools, digital currency using blockchain

    2. Knowing that the path ahead is ICT driven, we have started digital initiatives with the ultimate goal for everyone in Bhutan to have a digital ID, as a build-up for Big Data system

      digitalisation in Bhutan, digital IDs, digitalised taxation system, use of ICTs in schools, digital currency using blockchain

    1. Nous savons que nous devons agir de maniére conjointe et proactive, que nous devons relever de nouveaux défis fels que la coopération numérique, afin de ne laisser personne de cété, ou l’intégration des jeunes, vecteurs du changement.

      new challenges such as digital cooperation and not to leave person behind + integration of youth

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    1. We will look to accelerate investment trends, like increased digitization, that will modernize our economy and help it recover.
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    1. From a group of 16, FOSS has grown to 108 members today, and will celebrate our 30th anniversary next year. 69. To mark this milestone, Singapore will launch a new “FOSS for Good” programme.70. It will commence in 2022 and will focus on priority areas such as digital transformation and COVID-19 recovery, tailored to the unique challenges faced by small countries
    2. The next step is to take action on these proposals, and Singapore willsupport efforts by the UN to advance our global conversation. So that together, we can make tangible progress on digital transformation for sustainable development.
    3. I have only touched on some of the issues we need to look at. There are other important issues outlined in the Secretary-General’s Roadmap for Digital Cooperation. The Common Agenda also lays out a way forward, on a global “digital technology track”.
    4. We can do much more to improve international data governance, to promote inter-operability, trust, and security when we transact in the digital environment
    5. There is already much work being done. But we need to give these efforts a stronger push, througheducation, training, and, improving digital skills and literacy across the board; investing in infrastructure, for universal and affordable internet connectivity; and expanding access to data and digital public goods, including open-source software and digital utilities.
    6. These can be building blocks in a larger global architecture.60. At the broader level, we need determined action to close the digital divide, not only within nations but also between nations.
    7. At the national level, Singapore is already building partnerships with many countries. 57. We have concluded Digital Economy Agreements with several partners.58. We co-lead the WTO Joint Statement Initiative on e-commerce with Japan and Australia, which now includes more than 80 member economies and comprise 90% of global trade
    8. s a small country, a vital node in the international digital network, Singapore has always advocated a global architecture that is open, inclusive, inter-operable, and multi-stakeholder
    9. There are many paths we can take: the Secretary-General’s proposal for a Global Digital Compact, or a new UN convention on digital transformation for sustainable development, or a framework of norms and principles.These options are part of the conversation that we need to have at the global level
    10. There are no ready answers. But we clearly need to have a conversation about a global framework to maximise the opportunities and deal with the challenges posed by digital transformation. 47. The goal is both simple and singular: how can we enhance multilateral cooperation to leverage digital technologies for sustainable development?
    11. Can we find ways to address the pandemic of misinformation, which has sometimes been arguably worse than the pandemic itself?
    12. There are many questions related to digital transformation. 43. How can we provide fair and secure access to digital data, so that data is not monopolised by the few, leaving the vast majority digitally disenfranchised? 44. How can we encourage a freer flow of data across the world, to promote innovation and inclusive sustainable development?
    13. To put it differently, if we do not close the digital divide, we will not achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. That is why digitalisation poses a global challenge that requires a concerted global response.
    14. Digital transformation is not just about new technologies and new hardware.39. Fundamentally, it is about improving livesand empowering people, especially the poorest and most vulnerable.It is about strengthening the resilience of our societies and economies.40. In a nutshell, digital transformation should be about sustainable development.
    15. The digital divide has prevented access to education, health care, and many other essential services to millions of people around the world.
    16. The digital revolution was well underway before COVID-19. But the pandemic has accelerated the pace and scaleof this revolution. 35. Digital technologies have empowered millions of people. But the gulf of opportunities between digital haves and digital have-nots has also widened.36. Today, 3.8 billion people remain digitally disconnected.
    1. mongst new challenges and threats we also see state's intention to militarize the internet and unleash a cyber arms race russia advocates for agreeing at the u.n upon ways to ensure international information security the process here should not be based on someone's special rules but rather on universal agreements allowing to examine any concerns in a transparent manner relying on facts this is the aim of our initiative to elaborate standard norms for states responsible behavior in the use of icts and are preparing universalconvention a universal convention on combating cyber crime along with this digital space
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    1. Rebuilding sustainably requires usto re-evaluate digital accessibility, affordability,and technical assistance so that every country regardless of income level or
    2. A less negative outcomeof the pandemic has been its effect in turbo-chargingthe digitization of our workplacesand societies. But not all countries –particularly Small Island Developing States -have the infrastructure, capacity and workforce skills to fully benefit from thisrevolution
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    1. We believe thatcountries should be supported in theirefforts to build robust and resilient digital infrastructure. Public investments of this sort can serve as a force multiplier in narrowing the gaps that result in inequitable developmental outcomes. Universal, secure and affordable digital connectivity is needed to ensure inclusive and sustainable development. We,therefore advocatefor an increased digital alliance within the global community and support the UNSecretary General’s High-Level Panel on the Digital Cooperation Roadmap.
    2. Jamaicais taking an inclusive approach to improvedigital literacy,through increased access to,and use of ICT,by 50% in public institutions, schools and key public areas in the country,over the next four years.We are engaging ourprivate sector to improvethe application of science, technology and innovation ineducational institutions,towardsnational development.
    3. Addressing thenegative consequences willrequire greater engagement of the public and private sectors in building foundations for long term development. Leaving no one behindtodaymeans leaving no one offline. That is why Jamaica has been working to ensure that the tools neededto adapt and thrive,are provided to our citizens
    4. allowedthe digitally connected to thrive while severely exacerbating the inequalities faced by the digitally disconnected.This is particularly evident in our rural areas, along gender lines and generally among the poorest and most vulnerable

      continued

    5. Today, we see some countries receiving a ‘digital dividend’ while others suffer the consequences of a ‘digital divide.’There is need to address urgently the latterin support of COVID-19 adaptationmeasures,response and recovery efforts. Accelerated digitalization, remote work and education, e-commerce and the virtual delivery of essential services, have
    1. he innovative advances we had made allowed usto diversify our capabilities when the virus hit–through e-Government, online education and digital textbooks, and acentral software system which drove a successful vaccination rollout.
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    1. we must adopt clear investment strategies which help alleviate poverty, promote job creation, build sustainable infrastructure, and of course bridge the digital divide.
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    1. Although Malta enjoys a positive and professional relationship as a ‘Digital Island’, we aim to further enhance our potential in the field and fast track our digital transformation. Our aim is to implement modernised and secure digital services that are accessible to all.
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    1. And we agreedonthe development of the EU Digital certificate. An innovative concept that Greece proposed, the implementation of which has been central to the restoration of our freedoms, the support of tourism and the rejuvenation of our economies.

      EU digital certificate

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    1. Our ‘Digital Bangladesh’ initiative has stimulated transformative impacts on socio-economic development, education, disaster risk reduction, women’s empowerment, and so on

      'Digital Bangladesh' initiative

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    1. Nous nous attelons maintenant à réformer le système éducatif pour en faire un enseignement technique et professionnel, ce qui permettra de créer une jeunesse techniquement capable d’être polyvalente dans l’exercice des activités économiques dans tous les secteurs

      digitally literate pop

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    1. Nous devons enfin, plus que jamais,accélérer la transition numérique

      need to speed up digital transformation

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    1. La pandémiea également révélé//l’ampleur de l’écart technologique entre les pays, //et nous a montré l’importance des Nouvelles Technologies de l’Information et de la Communication //et la nécessité d’agir en urgence, //pour réduire cefossé

      importance of tech during covid-19 and brought into spotlight the digital divide.

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